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© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 1 Building Confidence in E-government Services ITU-T Workshop on Challenges, Perspectives and Standardization Issues in E-government Geneva, 5-6 June 2003 Alexander NTOKO Chief, E-Strategy Unit ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT)
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 2 But Why? A Holistic Approach to Building Confidence is A Key Driver for E-government.
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 3 …Because the challenges for DCs are not just limited to technology and access Security plays a central role in building user confidence for e- government services
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 4 Security concerns for e-applications are quite high in the priorities of Developing Countries Results of ITU-D Survey (March 2003) on Challenges to E-Transactions. WTDC02 IsAP Programme3 - Security
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 5 An entity A, can be said to trust another entity B when A makes the assumption that B will behave exactly as A expects. Its about having confidence in government services provided via Telecommunications/ICTs. What is TRUST?
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 6 …but in e-government, it is important to Know if you are dealing with a dog. Knowing who you are dealing with remains a major concern
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 7 What are some of the security concerns? 1. Identity Interception: The observation of identities of communicating parties for misuse. 2. Data Interception: The observation of user data during a communication by an unauthorized user. 3. Manipulation: The interception and modification of information in a private communication. 4. Masquerade: Pretending to be another user to access information or to acquire additional privileges. 5. Replay: The recording and subsequent replay of a communication at some later date. 6. Repudiation: The denial by a user of having participated in part or all of a communication. 7. Denial of Service: The prevention or interruption of a communication or the delay of time-critical operations. 8. Traffic Analysis: The unauthorized analysis and observation of information (e.g. frequency, sequence, type, amount, etc.).
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 8 Lets Map some of the Security/Trust Issues to Possible Solutions… Identity Interception: Confidentiality (Strong Encryption). Data Interception: Confidentiality (Strong Encryption). Manipulation: Data Integrity (Digital Signatures). Masquerade: Authentication (Digital Certificates) Replay: Digital Signatures + with Time Stamp. Repudiation: Digital Signatures. Denial of Service: Authentication and Access Control. Traffic Analysis: Strong Encryption.
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 9 …It is clear that identity verification/management plays a crucial role in addressing many of these problems…
Digital Signatures are central to the Solution Signers Private Key Signed Document Encrypted Digest Hash Algorithm Digest
Verifying the Digital Signature for Authentication and Data Integrity Hash Algorithm Digest ? ? Signers Public Key Integrity: One bit change in the content changes the digest
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 12 What Solutions do Digital Signatures provide? Guarantees: o Integrity of document One bit change in document changes the digest o Authentication of sender Signers public key decrypts digest sent and decrypted digest matches computed digest o Non-repudiation Only signers private key can encrypt digest that is decrypted by his/her public key and matches the computed digest. Non-repudiation prevents reneging on an agreement by denying a transaction.
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 13 How do different Technologies Address the main Security Challenges for E-government?
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 14 Growing Demand for Security and Trust
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 15 Reflected in growth projections for PKI
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 16 But Why PKI? o Its Not about Waging a Technology War. o The Issue is about Providing Solutions.
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 17 PKI Addresses Many Security and Trust Issues for Building Confidence in E-government: o Data Confidentiality Information accessed only by those authorized o Data Integrity No information added, changed, or taken out o Strong Authentication Parties are who they pretend to be o Non-repudiation Originator cannot deny origin o Infrastructure of trust Automating the checking of identities o Mechanism to prevent Replay Digital signature combined with Time Stamp
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 18 But To Assist DCs we must Learn from the Experiences of Industrialized Countries: 1. What are the issues facing industrialized countries with PKIs? 2. Can developing countries avoid these pitfalls?
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 19 Some PKI Challenges faced by Industrialized Countries? 1. Technology-Level Non Interoperability Between Different PKI Vendors. 2. Different Approaches to Address CA-CA Interoperability Challenges. 3. Sector-Specific Strategies for Identity Certificates Leading to Non-interoperability of Digital Signatures Across PKI Domains (e.g., for Health, Finance and Business). 4. Recognition of Certificates across Geographical Boundaries. National Identities or National Passports?
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 20 Some Possible Approaches to Build Confidence in e-government for Developing Countries? o Generic Identity Certificates Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) for Generic Identity Certificates (digital ID cards). Comprehensive Certificate Policies for CA-CA Interoperability. o Attribute or Privilege Certificates Establishment of Privilege Management Infrastructures (PMI) for Sector Specific Needs. Establishment of Frame work for Relationship between AA and CAs o Technology Level Interoperability CA-CA and CA-RA Interoperability
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 21 Build Trust Where is Exists! Generic Identity Framework for All Sectors
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 22 …But DCs still face many challenges: …Just to list a few of them… o Low Level of Awareness on Security/Trust Technologies and their role as a key driver for e- government. o Human and Financial Resources to Establish PKI. o Appropriate Business Models for Sustainability and Investments in PKI. o Standards and/or Profiles to ensure for Multi-Vendor Interoperability. o Policy-Level Interoperability for PKI Domains and Jurisdictions. o Dealing with Liabilities, Risks, Insurance, Legal and Policy Framework for PKI Services.
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 23 How is ITU-D Assisting DCs in e-government? o ITU-D Istanbul Action Plan (IsAP) Policies: Assistance in Addressing National/Regional e-applications Policies Projects: Projects on E-government Infrastructure and Applications/Services. Training: Building Human Capacity and Awareness on e-Security and E-government. Environment: Assistance in Legal Issues for E- Applications and Conducive Environment. Guidelines: ITU-D Study Group Questions to Provide guidelines on E-Applications (including e- government).
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 24 Conclusion – Is there Any Hope for e-government services in Developing Countries? o Telecommunications and ICTs can enhance government services by creating efficiencies and reaching the population in remote areas. o E-government can stimulate the development of ICTs and telecommunication infrastructure in DCs. o But for this to happen, decision-makers and users must have confidence in the use of this new channel for the delivery of government services.
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 25 Thank You for Your Attention For further information Web:http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/e-strategyhttp://www.itu.int/ITU-D
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 1 Seminar on Standardization and ICT Development for the Information.
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 1 ICT and E-Business Strategies For Development Geneva, October.
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategies Unit.. Page - 1 Building Trust and Security for E-government Dubai, United Arab.
© Copyright International Telecommunication Union (ITU). All Rights Reserved page - 1 Alexander NTOKO Project Manager, ITU Electronic Commerce.
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) – E-Strategy Unit.. Page - 1 Building Trust and Confidence for Critical E-government Services.
© ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) page - 1 Alexander NTOKO Chief, E-Strategy Unit ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau Seminar.
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