3Basic Chemistry Review Elements are the simplest form of matter - Atoms make up elementsThere are more than 100 elements listed on the Periodic Table, but only 30 are important to life90% of the mass of all living things are made of compounds containing Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Nitrogen (N)
4Compounds are elements bonded together H2O = 2 hydrogen atoms + 1 oxygen atom = waterCO2 = 1 carbon atom + 2 oxygen atoms = carbon dioxideC6H12O6…If the compound contains the element CARBON, then it is called an ORGANIC compound
5Organic CompoundsThere are 4 organic compounds that are essential to life:ProteinsCarbohydratesLipidsNucleic Acids
6Each organic compound is also called a POLYMER: A large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond togetherPolymers are made of MONOMERS: small molecules that make up a polymer. (Building blocks)
7**Carbohydrates** Used by cells to provide ENERGY! Monosaccharide: One simple sugarMono: one, Saccharide: sugarEx. Glucose & FructoseDisaccharide: Two sugarsDi: two, so 2 monosaccharides linked together will produce a disaccharide.Ex. Sucrose (table sugar)Polysaccharide: Many sugarsPoly: manyEx. Glycogen, starch
8So if sugars were bricks… Monosaccharide:Disaccharide:Polysaccharide:
9Real Life Polysaccharides: Mammals store their energy in the liver in the form of glycogen.Plants store their energy in the form of starch.Also, cellulose is a polysaccharide plants use to make up their cell walls and give them shape.
10Is there starch in there?? You can put yellow iodine into a solution to see if starch is present.No: Stays yellowYes: Turns a blue/black color!
11Is there sugar in there??You can mix Benedict’s solution to see if there is sugar in a heated mixture.No: Stays blueYes: Turns red
12**Lipids** Fats, Oils, Waxes, & Steroids Do not dissolve in water. Cells use lipids for long term energy storage, insulation, & protective coverings of cells.Made of Glycerol & Fatty Acids
13Are there lipids in there? When put on paper, the fats are absorbed into the paper.
14**Proteins**Provide structure for tissue and organs & carry out cell metabolism.Made up of amino acids (20)Amino acids link together by peptide bonds in countless orders to assemble various proteins.
15A Speedy Protein = Enzymes! Enzymes: Proteins that change the rate of a chemical reaction. They usually speed it up!
16Nucleic AcidsStores cellular information in the form of a code (Your genetic info!)Ex. DNA & RNAMade up of nucleotides.Nucleotides have 3 parts:Nitrogen BaseSimple SugarPhosphate Group*All living things containNucleic Acids!!*