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Organic Molecules Objective 2.01:

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Molecules Objective 2.01:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Molecules Objective 2.01:
Compare & Contrast the structure & functions of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, & Nucleic Acids

2 Today

3 Basic Chemistry Review
Elements are the simplest form of matter - Atoms make up elements There are more than 100 elements listed on the Periodic Table, but only 30 are important to life 90% of the mass of all living things are made of compounds containing Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Nitrogen (N)

4 Compounds are elements bonded together
H2O = 2 hydrogen atoms + 1 oxygen atom = water CO2 = 1 carbon atom + 2 oxygen atoms = carbon dioxide C6H12O6… If the compound contains the element CARBON, then it is called an ORGANIC compound

5 Organic Compounds There are 4 organic compounds that are essential to life: Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic Acids

6 Each organic compound is also called a POLYMER: A large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together Polymers are made of MONOMERS: small molecules that make up a polymer. (Building blocks)                                                      

7 **Carbohydrates** Used by cells to provide ENERGY!
Monosaccharide: One simple sugar Mono: one, Saccharide: sugar Ex. Glucose & Fructose Disaccharide: Two sugars Di: two, so 2 monosaccharides linked together will produce a disaccharide. Ex. Sucrose (table sugar) Polysaccharide: Many sugars Poly: many Ex. Glycogen, starch

8 So if sugars were bricks…
Monosaccharide: Disaccharide: Polysaccharide:

9 Real Life Polysaccharides:
Mammals store their energy in the liver in the form of glycogen. Plants store their energy in the form of starch. Also, cellulose is a polysaccharide plants use to make up their cell walls and give them shape.

10 Is there starch in there??
You can put yellow iodine into a solution to see if starch is present. No: Stays yellow Yes: Turns a blue/black color!

11 Is there sugar in there?? You can mix Benedict’s solution to see if there is sugar in a heated mixture. No: Stays blue Yes: Turns red

12 **Lipids** Fats, Oils, Waxes, & Steroids Do not dissolve in water.
Cells use lipids for long term energy storage, insulation, & protective coverings of cells. Made of Glycerol & Fatty Acids

13 Are there lipids in there?
When put on paper, the fats are absorbed into the paper.

14 **Proteins** Provide structure for tissue and organs & carry out cell metabolism. Made up of amino acids (20) Amino acids link together by peptide bonds in countless orders to assemble various proteins.

15 A Speedy Protein = Enzymes!
Enzymes: Proteins that change the rate of a chemical reaction. They usually speed it up!

16 Nucleic Acids Stores cellular information in the form of a code (Your genetic info!) Ex. DNA & RNA Made up of nucleotides. Nucleotides have 3 parts: Nitrogen Base Simple Sugar Phosphate Group *All living things contain Nucleic Acids!!*

17 Sooo… Polymer Monomers Carbohydrate (Polysaccharide) Monosaccharides
Lipids Glycerol and Fatty Acids Proteins Amino Acids Nucleic Acids Nucleotides

18 Which organic compounds are found in a hamburger??
Review… Which organic compounds are found in a hamburger??

19 pH Scale Measures how acidic or basic a substance is

20 Acids Have a pH of 1to 7 Give off a H + Acids can burn Example
Lemon juice Stomach acid

21 Bases Have a pH of 7 to 14 A base gives off as OH-
A base can be used for cleaning Feels soapy Examples: Ammonia 409 cleaner

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