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ETSI – TS – Life Cycle Assessment of ICT Dr. Anders S.G. Andrae
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of ICT equipment, networks and services: General methodology and common requirements © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
3 Introduction – Problems addressed ISO 14040, ISO and the ILCD Handbook are recognized as normative LCA knowledge documents for any application Based on the ISO standards, numerous LCA results for ICT with different quality and inconsistent result presentations have been provided – EU requirement on improvement Standardization of LCA of ICT IS DEFINATELY NEEDED! ETSI has responded to the gap Work started in and will finish in 2011 The ETSI standard for ICT LCA is intended to be more specific than ISO 14040/ISO 14044, but less specific than, e.g., Japanese Product Category Rules for, e.g., notebooks © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
4 Features of the new ETSI LCA standard Based on ISO 14040, ISO and the ILCD Handbook Lifetimes – Defined Functional units (f.u.) – Basic f.u. defined System boundaries – Life Cycle Stages and Unit Processes Identified and Classified as Mandatory or Optional -The level of detail is relativelely high good guidance for users Rules for Cut – off if they cannot be avoided Data quality evalution – Qualitative requirements defined for all life cycle stages and unit processes Allocation methods – Specified. E.g., 50/50 allocation prefereed between Raw Matr. Aquisition and Metal recycling. Detailed reporting instructions (diagrams, tables)...will help, e.g., 3rd party reviewers © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
5 General requirements - Life cycle stages A. Equipment Raw material acquisition which is composed by Raw material extraction (A1) Raw material processing (A2) B. Production which is composed by ICT Equipment production (B1) Support Equipment production (B2) C. Use which is composed by ICT Equipment Use (C1) Support Equipment Use (C2) Operator activities (C3) Service Provider Activities (C4) D. Equipment End of Life Treatment Re–use (D1) ICT specific EoLT (D2) Other EoLT (D3) © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI 7 categories of Re-occuring Generic Unit Processes, e.g., Transportation, Energy supply
6 General requirements - Lifetime Lifetime is (always) critical for the interpretation of the results of (ICT) LCAs Operating lifetime: The duration of the actual use period (consisting of both active and non–active periods) for the first user. Storage time is not included in operating lifetime. Operating lifetime shall always be reported and be based on available information on actual product use. © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
7 Goal&Scope Definition - Intro Any ICT Equipment which can be part of a Network delivering voice and/or data lies within the scope of the ETSI LCA standard. © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
8 Goal&Scope Definition – Functional Unit The number of users/subscribers supported shall be specified and the traffic profile shall be considered where applicable. MANDATORY BASIC FUNCTIONAL UNITS Annual ICT Equipment use (per one year of ICT Equipment use) or Total ICT Equipment use per lifetime of ICT Equipment. Annual Network use Annual Service use. © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
9 Goal&Scope Definition – System Boundaries © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI System boundary A: EQUIPMENT RAW MATERIAL ACQUISITION A1. Raw material extraction A2. Raw material processing G1. TRANSPORTS&TRAVEL B: PRODUCTION B1. ICT Equipment production B1.1 Parts production B1.2 Assembly B1.3 ICT manufacturer support activities B2. Support Equipment production B2.1 Support Equipment manufacturing B2.2 Site construction C: USE C1. ICT Equipment use C2. Support Equipment use C3. Operator activities C4. Service provider activities D: EQUIPMENT END-OF-LIFE TREATMENT D1. Re–use of ICT Equipment D2. ICT specific EoLT D2.1 Disassembly/Dismantling/Shredding D2.2 Recycling D3. Other EoLT G2. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY G3. FUEL SUPPLY G4. OTHER ENERGY SUPPLY G5. RAW MATERIAL AQUISTION G5.1. Raw material extraction G5.2. Raw material processing G6. END-OF-LIFE TREATMENT G6.1 EHW treatment G6.2 Other waste treatment G7. RAW MATERIAL RECYCLING
10 Goal&Scope Definition – System Boundaries Classification Table 1 within your product system © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
11 Goal&Scope Definition – System Boundaries © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
12 Goal&Scope Definition – Support activities The term Support activities refers to, e.g., offices including ICT use for marketing, sales and R&D, and also to business travel, commuting and service vehicles. Support activities are optional to include but should be included where possible. The extent in which Support activities and other Optional activities are included for different parts of the life cycle shall be clearly described in the study report. © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
13 Goal&Scope Definition – Raw Material Acquisition © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI System boundary A1. Raw material extraction A2. Raw material processing B. PRODUCTION G7. RAW MATERIAL RECYCLING
14 Goal&Scope Definition – Production © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
15 Goal&Scope Definition – Use © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI System boundary C3. Operator activities D. EoLT B.PRODUCTION C2. Support Equipment Use C1. ICT Equipment use C4. Service provider activities
16 Goal&Scope Definition – End-of-Life © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI System boundary D3. Other EoLT C. USE D1 Re–use of ICT Equipment D2 ICT specific EoLT D2.1 Storage/Disassembly/Dismantling/Shredding D2.2 Recycling D2.2.1 Battery recycling ICT specific metal/mechanical parts/fractions EoLT D2.2.2 PCBA recycling D2.2.3 Cable recycling D2.2.4 Mechanics recycling D2.2.5 Other ICT recycling G7. RAW MATERIAL RECYCLING
17 Goal&Scope Definition – Networks System Boundaries © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI For the Network under study applicable types of nodes and infrastructure, as well as amounts of these, shall be defined. Functional Block diagrams (HW and SW) essential for showing study scope The impact from software development shall be included. The Network shall be defined in terms of ICT equipment, Support Equipment and infrastructure. Operator activities (mainly installation, maintenance and de-installation) shall always be included
18 Goal&Scope Definition – Services System Boundaries © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI In order to calculate the impact of a Service, it is necessary to first assess the Network Most often (i.e., in a multi–service situation) an allocation of an appropriate amount of the Network impact to the Service under study is needed Service software development, Service use of consumables, Service sales and logistics infrastructure, Service associated travels and transports Data centers are key Service provider activities Positive and negative impacts
19 Goal&Scope Definition – Cut-off rules © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI Cut–offs shall be avoided as far as possible! Table 1 constitute a significant share for typical product systems in ICT LCAs The intention is that all Mandatory life cycle stages/unit processes of Table 1 shall be included Model unavailable data based on known data Mandatory to: a) motivate clearly eventual cut–offs of mandatory life cycle stages/unit processes from Table 1 b) describe clearly the cut–off criteria used within a study c) consider unit processes/flows that have been cut–off for the sensitivity analysis.
20 Goal&Scope Definition – Data quality requirements © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI Generic data: Data from any relevant data source which need not be specific for ICT applications and processes. Generic data is always secondary. Specific data: Data emerging from, in this case, ICT specific applications and processes. This data could be either primary or secondary. Primary data: Data collected/estimated/measured by a researcher, specifically for the LCA project; for example, pilot studies or customer or producer surveys. Secondary data: Data that has been collected for another purpose, but can be analyzed again in a subsequent study; for example, LCA estimates by academia, government, or industry organizations.
21 Goal&Scope Definition – Data quality requirements onTable 1 © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
22 Goal&Scope Definition – Data quality requirements on Table 1 cont © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
23 Life Cycle Inventory – Data collection © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI The LCA practitioner shall report for which processes transports/energy supplies have been added separately and for which they are hidden. For many products (especially end–user equipment), periods of idling and power off are important to model the usage profile and shall be considered.
24 Life Cycle Inventory - Allocation rules © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI Generic processes (G1–G7) shall be allocated as a whole to the life cycle stage in which they are used Support activities… Facilities… Transports shall be allocated based on chargeable weight Recycling: The 50/50 method shall be used to allocate use of recycled Raw Material between A1-A2 and D. If used LCI data (e.g., for gold production) do not reveal the scrap% of metal, the 100/0 method is allowed. No metal recycling in EoLT allowed with 100/0.
25 Life Cycle Inventory – Allocation rules – 50/50 © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
26 Life Cycle Inventory – Allocation rules – 100/0 © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
27 Life Cycle Inventory - Allocation rules for Equipment data to Networks © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI End–user equipment (e.g., PCs, smart phones) which is accessing more than one Network (e.g. 3G, WLAN) shall be allocated to these Networks based on use time Impact from shared Network resources (e.g., transmission equipment, core nodes and data centers) shall be allocated to an access network based on data traffic
28 Life Cycle Inventory - Allocation rules for Network data to Services © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI Data for End–users– and home/CPE equipment: to be allocated based on active use time of the Service Data for transport equipment: to be allocated based on data traffic The data center(s), where the Service is operated, as well as the Service provider activities shall be allocated based on number of subscriptions and Service users
29 Life Cycle Impact Assessment © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI The baseline model of 100 years of the IPCC (GWP100) LCIA method is mandatory (shall) as mid–point impact assessment indicator for climate change. For other mid-points Impact Assessment Categories than Climate Change and Ozone Depletion there are several Category indicators developed. If these mid– points are included in the study scope the ILCD Handbook shall be followed as close as possible. Also for best End-point assessment practise the ILCD Handbook for LCIA shall be consulted.
30 Life Cycle Interpretation - how robust are the results and conclusions? © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI The challenge of the completeness check is to overcome the paradox of evaluating the degree of completeness of the product system when not knowing 100% of it. If two or more ICT Equipment, Networks or Services LCA results do not differ significantly there is a risk of erroneous interpretations. The significance is determined for instance by magnitude in difference, modeling assumptions, and LCA software program calculation algorithm.
31 Comparative LCA between ICT and business as usual (BAU) systems - reduction potential © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI LCAs with the same goal&scope, system boundaries and functional unit need to be performed for both the ICT Service and the BAU Service it replaces Especially as identical as possible system boundaries for the Raw Material Acquisition and Production Phases. For the BAU Service the associated environmental impacts shall be estimated according to travel and infrastructure first order effects. The first order effects are those directly attributable to the Services. The reduction potential is the second order effect. Rebound effects are outside the scope.
32 Comparative LCA between ICT and business as usual (BAU) systems - Example © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI TravelPaper usageBuildingsPCsData centers BAU Service30, ICT Service15, Reduction potential = ICT Service – BAU Service 15,000 – 30,000 = – 15,000 tons/year – 100 tons/year 0 tons/year+200 tons/year TOTAL reduction potential – 14,700 tons/year
33 Reporting © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI Common ways of reporting increase transparency and a proper basis for interpretation of results. The following shall be transparently reported and motivated: Operating lifetime Cut–off Allocations Data sources
34 Reporting – ICT Equipment © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
35 Reporting – ICT Equipment © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
36 Reporting – Networks © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
37 Reporting – Networks © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
38 Reporting – ICT Equipment, Network and Service © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
39 Reporting - Mandatory set of parts for LCA of ICT equipment. © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
40 Reporting - Mandatory set of parts for LCA of ICT equipment - ICs © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
41 Reporting - Reporting format for included life cycle stages, activities and generic processes © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
42 Reporting - Reporting format for raw materials © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
43 Reporting - Reporting format for Parts production © 2011 – Proprietary and Information of ETSI
CONTACT © 2011 – Proprietary Information of ETSI 44
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