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Ecosystem Approach to Management in DFO Maritimes Implementation Experience Bob O'Boyle & Tana Worcester Bedford Institute of Oceanography Dartmouth, Nova.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystem Approach to Management in DFO Maritimes Implementation Experience Bob O'Boyle & Tana Worcester Bedford Institute of Oceanography Dartmouth, Nova."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystem Approach to Management in DFO Maritimes Implementation Experience Bob O'Boyle & Tana Worcester Bedford Institute of Oceanography Dartmouth, Nova Scotia

2 Background Two 'Laboratories' Two 'Laboratories' Eastern Scotian Shelf (ESSIM) Eastern Scotian Shelf (ESSIM) One of first DFO pilots (started in 1998)One of first DFO pilots (started in 1998) Governance (Oceans lead) Governance (Oceans lead) Ecosystem objectives (Science lead) Ecosystem objectives (Science lead) Gulf of Maine Area (GOMA) Gulf of Maine Area (GOMA) Emerging since first interaction with US in 2004Emerging since first interaction with US in 2004 Challenges Challenges Tension between management pragmatism & scientific elegance Tension between management pragmatism & scientific elegance Evolving national policy & guidelines Evolving national policy & guidelines

3 Current Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Management Planning Area Ongoing Dialogue on Western Boundary & Inshore / Offshore Boundary

4 Overarching Conceptual Objectives Planning Area Conceptual Objectives Planning Area Operational Objectives Sector Sub - Sector Operational Objectives National Ecosystem Objectives ESSIM Area Ecosystem Objectives Monitor Ecosystem States Control Cumulative Impacts of Sectors Control Impacts of Sectors Control Impacts of Sub-Sector Planning Hierarchy

5 Determined IM Area specific Issues Determined IM Area specific Issues Key issues from Science & stakeholder perspective Key issues from Science & stakeholder perspective Working Groups & Workshops Working Groups & Workshops Product was laymans understanding of Issues at IM Area Level Product was laymans understanding of Issues at IM Area Level Organized by national ecosystem objective Organized by national ecosystem objective Identification of Issues & Ecosystem Components in ESSIM Area

6 National Ecosystem Objectives (2001 Workshop) Draft ESS Ecosystem Objectives developed consistent with this framework

7 Conservation Objective Issues Specific Ecosystem Components on ESS related to the Issues Community Diversity Protection of Fragile Benthic Communities I.e. Coral and in Gully Benthic & coral communities & high diversity benthic community in Gully Species Diversity Protection of Species at Risk, low productivity & narrow niche species Introduction of Invasive Species through Ballast water Bottlenose Whales & Leatherback Turtles Population Diversity Loss of genetic diversityFish spawning components e.g. cod Trophic Structure Harvesting of forage speciesKrill & sand lance Generation Times Fishing Mortality on directed & by-catch species Impact of oily discharges on Seabirds Commercial & non-commercial populations Physical Properties Seismic ImpactsAcoustic environment Chemical Properties Ship Source PollutionOil & GasSediments & water column Issues & Ecosystem Components in ESSIM Area

8 Draft Ecosystem Objectives for ESSIM Area Driven by issues specific to ESSIM Area

9 Ecosystem Objectives released in Fall 2005 in draft ESSIM Plan Ecosystem Objectives released in Fall 2005 in draft ESSIM Plan Still high level Still high level Further refinement upon determination of: Further refinement upon determination of: Ecological & Biological Significant Areas (EBSAs)Ecological & Biological Significant Areas (EBSAs) Ecological & Biological Significant SpeciesEcological & Biological Significant Species Degraded AreasDegraded Areas Depleted SpeciesDepleted Species Need for formal prioritization process Need for formal prioritization process Quantitative vs Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative vs Qualitative Risk Analysis Risk of NOT achieving overarching objective Risk of NOT achieving overarching objective ESSIM Area Ecosystem Objectives

10 IM Area Operational Objectives ESSIM Science WG developed workplan by ecosystem objective to define operational objectives ESSIM Science WG developed workplan by ecosystem objective to define operational objectives Some completed (e.g. Primary Productivity, Sediment, cod, plaice, halibut) Some completed (e.g. Primary Productivity, Sediment, cod, plaice, halibut) Project put on hold to await refinement of ecosystem objectives Project put on hold to await refinement of ecosystem objectives GOMA Science WG developed draft operational objectives based upon early ESSIM work GOMA Science WG developed draft operational objectives based upon early ESSIM work Focus on monitoring Focus on monitoring Specific to fisheries Specific to fisheries Regional DFO Workshop (October 2005) Regional DFO Workshop (October 2005) Engage & educate all sectors on integrated management Engage & educate all sectors on integrated management Opportunity to compare / contrast ESSIM & GOMA approaches Opportunity to compare / contrast ESSIM & GOMA approaches Developed generic working set of IM area operational objectives Developed generic working set of IM area operational objectives

11 IM Area Operational Objectives

12 Conservation of Benthic Communities Oceans requested Science advice on this objective in 2000 Oceans requested Science advice on this objective in 2000 Three phase process Three phase process June 2001:Benthic Classification Systems June 2001:Benthic Classification Systems July 2005:Classification of Scotian Shelf Benthic Community July 2005:Classification of Scotian Shelf Benthic Community 2006/07:Characterization on impacts, indicators & reference points 2006/07:Characterization on impacts, indicators & reference points Since initiation of process, complementary related initiatives (e.g. EBSA) underway Since initiation of process, complementary related initiatives (e.g. EBSA) underway

13 Lowest Risk to Impact Highest Risk to Impact Scope for Growth Disturbance High Productivity (Benign) Low Productivity (Adverse) Stable Disturbed D e p t h G r a i n s i z e C u r r e n t Food Availability Water temperature Variability in temperature Oxygen Saturation Wave height/period Stratification Based on Southwood Model

14 Multibeam Profiling

15 High Risk Areas Areas of Potentially Higher Risk

16 Sector Operational Objectives Decided to engage fishing sector on EBM Decided to engage fishing sector on EBM Presented generic IM area operational objectives to Scotia-Fundy Industry Roundtable (Jan 2006) Presented generic IM area operational objectives to Scotia-Fundy Industry Roundtable (Jan 2006) Fishing industry agreement to evaluate Fisheries Management Plans (FMPs) against objectives Fishing industry agreement to evaluate Fisheries Management Plans (FMPs) against objectives

17 Maritimes Fisheries Management Plans Evaluations Completed

18 Preliminary Evaluation of Georges Bank FMPs Blue: high relevance that currently receive attention Red: high relevance & require attention Others: of low relevance

19 Monitoring & Reporting Regulatory Regulatory Performance indicators Performance indicators Ecosystem Ecosystem Contextual indicators Contextual indicators Study of ecosystem processes e.g. causalityStudy of ecosystem processes e.g. causality Changes in reference points e.g. regimes shiftsChanges in reference points e.g. regimes shifts Suite of 60+ indicators reported in 2003 Ecosystem Status Report Suite of 60+ indicators reported in 2003 Ecosystem Status Report Now working on set for Gulf of Maine AreaNow working on set for Gulf of Maine Area More formally linked to ecosystem objectivesMore formally linked to ecosystem objectives

20 Grey seals, pelagic fish abundance, invertebrate landings, fish species richness, phytoplankton Bottom temp., exploitation, groundfish biomass & landings, growth-CHP, avg. fish weight, copepods 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

21 Why these Changes? 1) Top - Down Control?

22 Why these Changes? 2) Increased Stratification? Would favour proliferation of pelagic food web & limit flux of nutrients to benthos

23 Why these Changes? 3) Cooling? Cooling & increased advection associated with increases in cold water species

24 4TVW Haddock and Environment Management Reference Points would be modified based upon environment Implications for inclusion of 'Regime Shifts' in management actions Tons 0C0C 0C 0C

25 Future ESR Proposal Suite of Operational Objectives At Planning Area Level Would define Ecosystem Health Colour indicates Performance Of Operational Objective Green: Good Green: Good Yellow: Caution Yellow: Caution Red: Poor Red: Poor

26 Lessons for Workshop Develop common understanding of high level objectives Develop common understanding of high level objectives Compare regional sets of objectives & associated issues specific to planning area Compare regional sets of objectives & associated issues specific to planning area Stakeholder workshop? Stakeholder workshop? Planning area level Planning area level Contextual indicators Contextual indicators Ecosystem processesEcosystem processes Relevant to RP / RDsRelevant to RP / RDs Fishery level Fishery level Regulatory / tactical indicators & Reference points / Directions Regulatory / tactical indicators & Reference points / Directions Management action?Management action? PICES Report PICES Report Keep general but move towards objectives structure Keep general but move towards objectives structure Maintain array of indicators Maintain array of indicators Time trends by functional group & area

27 Final Thoughts Need Stakeholder buy-in to IM Need Stakeholder buy-in to IM IM provides framework that links policies & initiatives IM provides framework that links policies & initiatives Need Manager buy-in to IM Need Manager buy-in to IM Currently putting FMPs into framework to show what exists now & what gaps exist Currently putting FMPs into framework to show what exists now & what gaps exist Need Science buy-in to IM Need Science buy-in to IM Currently reviewing science work plans in relation to ecosystem objectives Currently reviewing science work plans in relation to ecosystem objectives

28 Thank You!

29 Outline Background Background Management Area Boundaries Management Area Boundaries Planning Hierarchy Planning Hierarchy Monitoring & Reporting Monitoring & Reporting

30 Developments since 1998 NATIONALLYMARITIMES 2000WG ON ECOSYSTEM OBJECTIVES 2001NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ECOSYSTEM OBJECTIVES 2002ILLUSTRATIVE PILOT OF ESSIM 2003ESSIM ECOSYSTEM OBJECTIVES WITH SCIENCE & STAKEHOLDERS 2004 ECOREGIONS WORKSHOP SCIENCE WG ON OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES ASSOCIATED WITH ESSIM ECOSYSEM OBJECTIVES DICUSSION WITH US ON MONITORING REQUIREMENTS OF GOM IM 2005NATIONAL GUIDELINES ON DEVELOPMENT OF ECOSYSTEM OBJECTIVES REVIEWS OF INITIAL ECOSYSTEM OVERVIEW & ASSESSMENT REPORTS RELEASE OF DRAFT ESSIM PLAN IM REQUIRMENTS OF FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS

31 Management Area for EAM Ecological Features across wide range of spatial scales Ecological Features across wide range of spatial scales Many existing administrative areas for fisheries & other ocean uses Many existing administrative areas for fisheries & other ocean uses Challenge Challenge Need to find consensus amongst diverse perspectives Need to find consensus amongst diverse perspectives

32 Scientist Perspective 2004 Ecoregions Workshop ESS GOMA

33 Fishery Manager Perspective 4VsW Cod 4VsW Cod

34 Ocean Manager Perspective ESS Gully MPA

35 Proposed Solution Select management areas based on established governance structures Select management areas based on established governance structures Use nested approach Use nested approach Ecological features larger than IM area require coordinated management actions amongst relevant contiguous areas Ecological features larger than IM area require coordinated management actions amongst relevant contiguous areas Small ecological features require fine spatial resolution of management actions within IM area Small ecological features require fine spatial resolution of management actions within IM area

36 Two Types of Objectives Conceptual Objective or Goal Conceptual Objective or Goal Interpret legislative mandate to be understandable to broad audience Interpret legislative mandate to be understandable to broad audience E.g. Restore Coral Community Biodiversity to pre-1980 levelsE.g. Restore Coral Community Biodiversity to pre-1980 levels Operational Objective or Strategy Operational Objective or Strategy Link between Conceptual Objective & Management Action Link between Conceptual Objective & Management Action Specific enough to be clear to all Specific enough to be clear to all Refers to indicator (e.g., biomass) & reference point (e.g., 50,000 t)Refers to indicator (e.g., biomass) & reference point (e.g., 50,000 t) E.g. Limit Area (sq Km) disturbed of Coral Community to 5000 sq kmE.g. Limit Area (sq Km) disturbed of Coral Community to 5000 sq km

37 StrategicOperational 1. ObjectiveDecision Rules 1.1 Sub-ObjectiveVerb +If I 1 is RED reduce exploitation 1.1.1 Operational ObjectiveIndicator 1If I 1 is YELLOW do not increase +If I 1 is GREEN increase slightly Reference point Verb + 2.1.2 Operational ObjectiveIndicator 2 + Reference point Policy Domain Unpacking AHA! Healthy fish stocks for the benefit of Canadians Rebuild or maintain biomass at optimum levels Restore abundance to levels comparable to the 1950-60s Management Domain

38 Steps to Operationalize ESSIM Plan 1. Identify conservation issues & impacted ecosystem components 2. Organize issues / components using national objectives as guide & state as ESSIM Ecosystem Objectives 3. Identify Ocean Sectors implicated in implementation of ESSIM Ecosystem Objective 4. Define Operational Objectives for ESSIM Area 5. Define Operational Objectives for each Ocean Sector

39 Management of Cumulative Impacts Level of Hierarchy Conceptual Objective Operational Objective Overarching Conserve Community Biodiversity N/A Planning Area Restore Coral Community Biodiversity to pre-1980 levels Limit Area (sq Km) disturbed of Deep Sea Coral Community to 6000 sq km Fishery Sector N/A Limit Area (sq Km) disturbed of Deep Sea Coral Community to 50% of 6000 sq km (3000 sq km) Crab Fishery N/A Limit Area (sq Km) disturbed of Deep Sea Coral Community to 1000 sq km Groundfish Fishery N/A Limit Area (sq Km) disturbed of Deep Sea Coral Community to 1000 sq km Shrimp Fishery N/A Limit Area (sq Km) disturbed of Deep Sea Coral Community to 1000 sq km

40 Disturbance Grain size (mm)

41 Adversity, limiting factors model ChlaStratificationTemperature Seasonal var Interannual var

42 Sectors Implicated in Implementation Based upon Qualitative Human Impact Threats Analysis

43 Other Sectors Aquaculture Aquaculture Decision rules for Sulphides developed Decision rules for Sulphides developed Working on additional indicators e.g. oxygen Working on additional indicators e.g. oxygen Oil & Gas Oil & Gas Code of Practice for seismic noise Code of Practice for seismic noise Discharge guidelines Discharge guidelines Transport Transport Ballast water regulations (invasives) Ballast water regulations (invasives) Consolidation under one framework required to address cumulative effects

44 IM Area Operational Objectives

45 Habitat Classification Kostylev 2005

46 Area Trawled

47 Contextual Indicators Study of ecosystem processes Physical & Chemical Physical & Chemical Salinity, temperature, stratification Salinity, temperature, stratification Sea level, currents Sea level, currents NAO index, wind stress NAO index, wind stress Nutrients Nutrients Biological Biological Phyto & zoo plankton Phyto & zoo plankton Finfish & small pelagic community condition Finfish & small pelagic community condition Pelagic / demersal Biomass ratio Pelagic / demersal Biomass ratio

48 Clear shift in ecosystem state based on 60+ indicators 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 PCA 1 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Demersal ---------------------------- Pelagic/invertebrate system Index of Ecosystem Change

49 4VsW Cod Total Annual Mortality

50 Grey Seal Impact on 4VsW Cod

51 Grey seal population size Southern Gulf ~ 60,000Southern Gulf ~ 60,000 ~370,000 grey seals in Canadian Atlantic waters~370,000 grey seals in Canadian Atlantic waters Today roughly 700,000 t of prey consumed each year compared to 6,000 t 40 yr agoToday roughly 700,000 t of prey consumed each year compared to 6,000 t 40 yr ago

52 Contextual Indicators Changes in Reference Points For example, F0.1 function of For example, F0.1 function of Fishery Partial Recruitment Fishery Partial Recruitment Stock Growth Stock Growth Function ofFunction of Environment (e.g. temperature) Environment (e.g. temperature) Food availability (prey) Food availability (prey) Stock Natural Mortality Stock Natural Mortality Function ofFunction of Predators Predators Disease Disease Challenge Challenge To determine influential contextual indicators on changes in reference points of operational objectives To determine influential contextual indicators on changes in reference points of operational objectives

53 Ecosystem Status Report Have been numerous 'State of the Oceanography' reports Have been numerous 'State of the Oceanography' reports First Ecosystem Status Report on Atlantic Coast done in 2003 First Ecosystem Status Report on Atlantic Coast done in 2003 Synopsis of changes in the ESS ecosystem based upon trends on over 60 indicators Synopsis of changes in the ESS ecosystem based upon trends on over 60 indicators

54 Overarching Conceptual Objectives Planning Area Conceptual Objectives Planning Area Operational Objectives Sector Sub - Sector Operational Objectives Maritimes EAM Report Card Used National Ecosystem Objectives as Guide Still high level Need to be refined & prioritized Generic objectives developed Still need to address cumulative effects X Progress in some sectors Fishing, Oil & Gas, Aquaculture Still need to be integrated into IM framework

55 Science Priority Highlights Draft ecosystem objectives being revisited Draft ecosystem objectives being revisited Ecologically & biologically significant areas & species Ecologically & biologically significant areas & species Degraded areas & depleted species Degraded areas & depleted species Ecosystem objectives being used to Ecosystem objectives being used to Evaluate science needs of all regional Fisheries Management Plans Evaluate science needs of all regional Fisheries Management Plans Develop research program with NMFS (Northeast) on indicators / reference points to support EBFM in GOMA Develop research program with NMFS (Northeast) on indicators / reference points to support EBFM in GOMA Ecosystem status report for GOMA Ecosystem status report for GOMA Similar to ESS report but linked to ecosystem objectives Similar to ESS report but linked to ecosystem objectives New suite of contextual indicators New suite of contextual indicators

56 Science Priority Highlights (cont'd) Benthic Community Biodiversity Benthic Community Biodiversity Characterization & scale of human impacts Characterization & scale of human impacts Evaluation of sensitivity of each community & reference points Evaluation of sensitivity of each community & reference points Coral Community Biodiversity Coral Community Biodiversity Deepwater coral distribution study Deepwater coral distribution study Specie Biodiversity Specie Biodiversity By-catch study across all Fisheries Management Plans By-catch study across all Fisheries Management Plans


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