Presentation on theme: "IP Connectivity in LDCs ITU, Geneva, April 11-12, 2002."— Presentation transcript:
Michael.Minges@itu.int IP Connectivity in LDCs ITU, Geneva, April 11-12, 2002
Index The L factor What is ? 3 snapshots: –Wireless wonder: Cambodia –Guns for radios: Niger –Small is beautiful: Cape Verde Conclusions
The L factor L DCLeast Developed Nations face special barriers L ack of infrastructureshortage of electricity, telephone lines and PCs to access the Internet L ow incomelow incomes means that Internet access will not be affordable L andlockedraises costs of international Internet connectivity L iteracyrelatively low rates of literacy is a barrier to using a text-based medium such as the Internet L anguagesin many LDCs, Internet content in local languages is not widely available L arurLDCs are predominantly rural and agricultural impacting both distribution and relevance of Internet information Major impediment to conventional Internet access in LDCs
Mass media: medium of communication (newspapers, radio, television, Internet) aimed at large numbers of people Mixed media: combining various communication media to enhance the dissemination of information Mixed media is an attractive way of spreading benefits of Internet in least developed countries Media-mixes are more effective than a single mediumNeil McKee
Media in LDCs The radio will probably do more to bring information, education and social progress to … the developing world than any other device for a generation. The Times of London, 10 August 1995 Source: ITU. Rural and community radio in Africa currently reach a far wider audience than the Internet or television. Photo: FAO / S.Oumar
Mixed Media in Action Internet content downloaded to radio station Internet information broadcast over radio in local languages Cellphone with radio Content providers call radio station with information
Cambodia 11.4 million population GNP per capita US$ 260 84% rural, 82% of population and 50% economy in agriculture Main language Khmer (95%), 65% literacy
Media in Cambodia Note: Radio and television refer to 1999, others 1996. Source: National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning.
Cambodia Internet Full connection in May 1997 6 Mbps in, 3.5 Mbps out of international connectivity (all satellite) ~ 8000 users (June 2001), 0.07% population
Wireless wonder First nation where more mobiles than fixed Mobile used to transmit pricing information in city markets TMS2Mail and WEM Wireless broadband
Niger One of worlds poorest nations: GNI per capita US$180, 161/162 HDI Landlocked 79% rural; Agriculture: 39% of economy 84% illiteracy 20 languages in use Source: World Bank, Ethnologue
Niger Internet Full connection to Internet in May 1997 via VSAT 128 kbps international bandwidth Nationwide dial-up number ~12000 users (0.1% of population)
Bankilare, Niger The Bankilare Community Information Center was built in 1999 by community members with help from the Niger government, UNDP & SNV (Netherlands Agency). It houses a community radio station equipped with a WorldSpace receiver. The encircled object is a WorldSpace antenna enclosed in tea box for protection.Bankilare Radio broadcaster in the Bankilare Community Information Center. The center downloads programming from the Africa Learning Channel for rebroadcast. The CIC often translates the programs into the local language before rebroadcasting them.
Small is beautiful? Internet & Population in LDCs Higher Internet penetration Smaller population
Cape Verde 4th highest Internet penetration in LDCs (3% of population) 434812 population (2000 Census) 55% homes have electricity 53% urban, agriculture 12% of GDP 2 languages, 74% literacy
Media in Cape Verde Note: Data from 1998. Source: INE.
Internet in Cape Verde Pre-commercial launch: October 1996, commercial launch a year later 1 Mbps international Internet connectivity ~ 12000 users (2.8% population)
Conclusions Because of income, literacy and linguistic issues, mixed-media may be a more effective way of disseminating information on the Internet to LDCs More small-scale, grass-roots, community-based projects are needed in LDCs There appears to be relationship between the size of a nation and the level of Internet access suggesting that moves to decentralize in larger nations may yield higher rates of ICT use What about Internet radio?
References Bruce Girard. The Challenges of ICTs and Rural Radio. www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6721e/x6721e16.htm# P5_1 The Bankilare Experience: An Example of a Successful Collaborative Effort to Bridge the Digital Divide. www.worldspace.org/related.html Andrew W. Shepherd. Farm Radio as a Medium for Market Information Dissemination. www.fao.org/sd/2001/radio/papers.htm ITU. Cambodia, Cape Verde Internet Case Studies.
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