Presentation on theme: "AP World History: The Enlightenment Period 4. I What was the Enlightenment? A)The Scientific Revolution (16-17 th centuries) allowed for the understanding."— Presentation transcript:
I What was the Enlightenment? A)The Scientific Revolution (16-17 th centuries) allowed for the understanding of universal natural laws in science, such as the existence of gravity. B)By the early 18 th century, a revolution in human thinking began called the Enlightenment. Thinkers of the Enlightenment (called philosophes) set out to find natural laws that govern human behavior to solve the problems of society. They believed that nothing is beyond the reach of the human mind.
II Hobbes vs. Locke Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were both 17 th century English philosophers. They both lived through the English Civil War, but came to very different conclusions about human nature and the role of government.
How do these two men disagree? Thomas Hobbes “During the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that conditions called war; and such a war, as if of every man, against every man.” “It is not wisdom but Authority that makes a law.” John Locke “All mankind... being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions.” “The end of law is not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom. For in all the states of created beings capable of law, where there is no law, there is no freedom.”
Thomas Hobbes Outlined his ideas in the Leviathan Believed people to be naturally cruel, greedy and selfish. Life in the state of nature would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.” To have a functioning society, people should enter into a social contract, an agreement where they give up some individual freedoms in exchange for an organized society. The best form of government is an absolute monarchy, that can impose order and obedience. John Locke Outlined his ideas in Two Treatises of Government Believed people to be naturally reasonable and moral All people are born with natural rights, including the right to life, liberty and property People need to form governments to protect their natural rights The best form of government has limited power and needs to be accepted by all citizens. All governments have an obligation to the people it governs. If a government fails in its obligations or violates its citizens natural rights, the people have a right to overthrow the government.
III Montesquieu (1689 – 1755) A)A French philosophe. B)1748 Baron de Montesquieu’s The Spirit of the Laws was published. In it he discussed governments throughout history. C)Believed the best way to protect liberty is to divide the powers of government among three branches; the legislative, executive and judicial. - influenced our system of checks and balances “The tyranny of a prince in an oligarchy is not so dangerous to the public welfare as the apathy of a citizen in a democracy. “
IV Voltaire (1694 – 1778) A)A French philosophe. Born Francois-Marie Arouet, known as Voltaire. B)Used literary wit to attack social injustices, including religious intolerance and slavery. “Men are equal; it is not birth but virtue that makes the difference. “I do not agree with what you have to say, but I'll defend to the death your right to say it.”
V Rousseau A)A French philosophe. B)1762 he outlined his ideas in The Social Contract. C)Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that people in the state of nature are naturally good. However, society corrupts which is why limited government is necessary. D)People in government should be freely elected. E)A social contract between all members of society is necessary for a just government. F)The good of the “general will” or the greater community should be put above individual interests. “I prefer liberty with danger than peace with slavery.”
VI Mary Wollstonecraft A)Mary Wollstonecraft was a British philosophe. B)1792 she published A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. She called for the equal education of boys and girls, so women could participate fully in public life. *At this time, society believed that women’s role should be limited to the family. “Make women rational creatures, and free citizens, and they will quickly become good wives; - that is, if men do not neglect the duties of husbands and fathers.”
VII New Economic Thinking A)French thinkers known as physiocrats believed that rational economic systems should be based on natural laws. B)Physiocrats rejected mercantilism, where the economy is strongly regulated by the government. Instead, they argued for a policy of laissez-faire: businesses can operate with little to no government regulation. C)British economist Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations. He argued for a free market that regulates itself. Economic growth is linked to the free market forces of supply and demand. “Labour was the first price, the original purchase - money that was paid for all things. It was not by gold or by silver, but by labour, that all wealth of the world was originally purchased.”
Focus Questions 1.Which enlightenment philosophes most influenced our society today? 2.Which enlightenment philosophes do you most agree with? Least agree with? Why?