Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byLeonard Baldric Morrison Modified over 9 years ago

2
Chapter 6 Sequences And Series

3
Look at these number sequences carefully can you guess the next 2 numbers? What about guess the rule? 3040 50607080 1720292623 32 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 48 4134272013 +10 +3 -7

4
Can you work out the missing numbers in each of these sequences? 50 30 17515012510075 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 507090110130 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 171176181 186 191196 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 256266276286296 306 +25 +20 -5 -10

5
Now try these sequences – think carefully and guess the last number! 12164711 3 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1224 48 966 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.5 23.556.5 8 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7-5-214-8 +1, +2, +3 … double + 1.5 -3

6
This is a really famous number sequence which was discovered by an Italian mathematician a long time ago. It is called the Fibonacci sequence and can be seen in many natural things like pine cones and sunflowers!!! 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 etc… Can you see how it is made? What will the next number be? 34!

7
Guess my rule! For these sequences I have done 2 maths functions! 37 3115 63127 2x -1 2 331795 3 2x +1

8
What is a Number Sequence? A list of numbers where there is a pattern is called a number sequence The numbers in the sequence are said to be its members or its terms.

9
Sequences To write the terms of a sequence given the n th term Given the expression: 2n + 3, write the first 5 terms In this expression the letter n represents the term number. So, if we substitute the term number for the letter n we will find value that particular term. The first 5 terms of the sequence will be using values for n of: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 term 1 2 x 1 + 3 5 term 2 2 x 2 + 3 7 term 3 2 x 3 + 3 9 term 4 2 x 4 + 3 11 term 5 2 x 5 + 3 13

10
Sequences Now try these : Write the first 3 terms of these sequences: 1)n + 2 2)2n + 5 3)3n - 2 4)5n + 3 5) - 4n + 10 6) n 2 + 2 3, 4, 5 7, 9, 11 1, 4, 7 8, 13, 18 6, 2, - 2, 3, 6, 11,

11
6B - The General Term of A Number Sequence Sequences may be defined in one of the following ways: listing the first few terms and assuming the pattern represented continues indefinitely giving a description in words using a formula which represents the general term or n th term.

12
The first row has three bricks, the second row has four bricks, and the third row has five bricks. If u n represents the number of bricks in row n (from the top) then u 1 = 3, u 2 = 4, u 3 = 5, u 4 = 6,....

13
This sequence can be describe in one of four ways: Listing the terms: u 1 = 3, u 2 = 4, u 3 = 5, u 4 = 6,....

14
This sequence can be describe in one of four ways: Using Words: The first row has three bricks and each successive row under the row has one more brick...

15
This sequence can be describe in one of four ways: Using an explicit formula: u n = n + 2 u 1 = 1 + 2 = 3 u 2 = 2 + 2 = 4 u 3 = 3 + 2 = 5 u 4 = 4 + 2 = 6,....

16
This sequence can be describe in one of four ways: Using a graph

17
What you really need to know! An arithmetic sequence is a sequence in which the difference between any two consecutive terms, called the common difference, is the same. In the sequence 2, 9, 16, 23, 30,..., the common difference is 7.

18
What you really need to know! A geometric sequence is a sequence in which the quotient of any two consecutive terms, called the common ratio, is the same. In the sequence 1, 4, 16, 64, 256,.., the common ratio is 4.

19
Example 1: State whether the sequence -5, -1, 3, 7, 11, … is arithmetic. If it is, state the common difference and write the next three terms.

20
Example 2:Subtract Common difference 11 – 7 4 7 – 3 4 3 – -1 4 -1 – -5 4 -5, -1, 3, 7, 11, Arithmetic! + 4 15, 19, 23

21
Example 2: State whether the sequence 0, 2, 6, 12, 20, … is arithmetic. If it is, state the common difference and write the next three terms.

22
Example 2:Subtract Common difference 20 – 12 8 12 – 6 6 6 – 2 4 2 – 0 2 0, 2, 6, 12, 20 … Not Arithmetic!

23
Example 3: State whether the sequence 2, 4, 4, 8, 8, 16, 16 … is geometric. If it is, state the common ratio and write the next three terms.

24
Example 3:Divide Common ratio 16 ÷ 16 1 16 ÷ 8 2 8 ÷ 8 1 8 ÷ 4 2 4 ÷ 4 1 4 ÷ 2 2 2, 4, 4, 8, 8, 16, 16, … Not Geometric!

25
Example 4: State whether the sequence 27, -9, 3, -1, 1/3, … is geometric. If it is, state the common ratio and write the next three terms.

26
Example 4:Divide Common ratio 1/3 ÷ -1 -1/3 -1 ÷ 3 -1/3 3 ÷ -9 -1/3 -9 ÷ 27 -1/3 27, -9, 3, -1, 1/3, Geometric! -1/3 -1/9, 1/27, -1/81

27
Classwork Page 154 (6B) All 5. Homework Compare Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences

28
An Arithmetic Sequence is defined as a sequence in which there is a common difference between consecutive terms.

29
Which of the following sequences are arithmetic? Identify the common difference. YES YES YES NO NO

30
T h e c o m m o n d i f f e r e n c e i s a l w a y s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a n y t e r m a n d t h e t e r m t h a t p r o c e e d s t h a t t e r m. C o m m o n D i f f e r e n c e = 5

31
The general form of an ARITHMETIC sequence. First Term: Second Term: Third Term: Fourth Term: Fifth Term: n th Term:

32
Formula for the nth term of an ARITHMETIC sequence. I f w e k n o w a n y t h r e e o f t h e s e w e o u g h t t o b e a b l e t o f i n d t h e f o u r t h.

33
Given: Find: IDENTIFYSOLVE

34
Given: Find: What term number is (-169)? IDENTIFY SOLVE If it’s not an integer, it’s not a term in the sequence

35
Given: IDENTIFYSOLVE Find: What’s the real question?The Difference

36
Given: IDENTIFYSOLVE Find:

37
Homework Page 156 2 - 11 ( Any 8 Problems) Take Home Test Due Tuesday.

38
G e o m e t r i c S e r i e s

39
Geometric Sequence The ratio of a term to it’s previous term is constant.The ratio of a term to it’s previous term is constant. This means you multiply by the same number to get each term.This means you multiply by the same number to get each term. This number that you multiply by is called the common ratio (r).This number that you multiply by is called the common ratio (r).

40
Example: Decide whether each sequence is geometric. 4,-8,16,-32,… -8 / 4 =-2 16 / -8 =-2 -32 / 16 =-2 Geometric (common ratio is -2) 3,9,-27,-81,243,… 9 / 3 =3 -27 / 9 =-3 -81 / -27 =3 243 / -81 =-3 Not geometric

41
Rule for a Geometric Sequence u n =u 1 r n-1 Example: Write a rule for the nth term of the sequence 5, 2, 0.8, 0.32,…. Then find u 8. First, find r.First, find r. r= 2 / 5 =.4r= 2 / 5 =.4 u n =5(.4) n-1u n =5(.4) n-1 u 8 =5(.4) 8-1 u 8 =5(.4) 7 u 8 =5(.0016384) u 8 =.008192

42
One term of a geometric sequence is u 4 = 3. The common ratio is r = 3. Write a rule for the nth term. Then graph the sequence. If u 4 =3, then when n=4, u n =3.If u 4 =3, then when n=4, u n =3. Use u n =u 1 r n-1Use u n =u 1 r n-1 3=u 1 (3) 4-1 3=u 1 (3) 3 3=u 1 (27) 1 / 9 =a 1 u n =u 1 r n-1u n =u 1 r n-1 u n =( 1 / 9 )(3) n-1 To graph, graph the points of the form (n,u n ).To graph, graph the points of the form (n,u n ). Such as, (1, 1 / 9 ), (2, 1 / 3 ), (3,1), (4,3),…Such as, (1, 1 / 9 ), (2, 1 / 3 ), (3,1), (4,3),…

43
Two terms of a geometric sequence are u 2 = -4 and u 6 = -1024. Write a rule for the nth term. Write 2 equations, one for each given term. u 2 = u 1 r 2-1 OR -4 = u 1 r u 6 = u 1 r 6-1 OR -1024 = u 1 r 5 Use these equations & sub in to solve for u 1 & r. -4 / r =u 1 -1024=( -4 / r )r 5 -1024 = -4r 4 256 = r 4 4 = r & -4 = r If r = 4, then u 1 = -1. u n =(-1)(4) n-1 If r = -4, then u 1 = 1. u n =(1)(-4) n-1 u n =(-4) n-1 Both Work!

44
6D1 (4 a and b) 5, 10, 20, 40 So, geometric sequence with u 1 = 5 r = 2

45
6D1 (9a) u 4 = 24 u 7 = 192

46
Homework Page 160 (6D.1 All) Take Home Test Due Tuesday

47
Compound Interest

48
8 - 47 100 110 121 1000 1210 1331 1100 100 110 Time(Years) 0 1234 Amount $1000 110 Interest 100 Interest 133.1 Compounding Period Interest 121 Compound Interest - Future Value

49
COMPOUND INTEREST FORMULA Where FV is the Future Value in t years and PV is the Present Value amount started with at an annual interest rate r compounded n times per year.

50
Find the amount that results from the investment: $50 invested at 6% compounded monthly after a period of 3 years. EXAMPLE $59.83

51
Investing $1,000 at a rate of 10% compounded annually, quarterly, monthly, and daily will yield the following amounts after 1 year: FV = PV(1 + r) = 1,000(1 +.1) = $1100.00 COMPARING COMPOUNDING PERIODS

52
Investing $1,000 at a rate of 10% compounded annually, quarterly, monthly, and daily will yield the following amounts after 1 year: COMPARING COMPOUNDING PERIODS

53
Investing $1,000 at a rate of 10% compounded annually, quarterly, monthly, and daily will yield the following amounts after 1 year: Interest Earned

54
Page 165 6D.3, #1 a & b The investment will amount to $3993 B.) Interest = amount after 3 yrs – initial amount $3993 - $3000 = $993

55
Page 165 6D.3, #2 a & b The investment will amount to €31470.39 B.) Interest = €31470.39 – €31470.39 €11470.39

56
Page 165. 6D.3 (3 – 10). (3 – 10). Homework

57
6E – Sigma Notation

58
Vocabulary maximum value of n starting value of n expression for general term Sigma – “take the sum of…” Read: “the summation from n = 1 to k of a n ”

59
Introduction to Sigma Notation 3 + 6 + 9 + 12 + 15 = ∑ 3n 5 n = 1 5 ∑ 3n3n Is read as “the sum from n equals 1 to 5 of 3n.” index of summationlower limit of summation upper limit of summation How many terms given? 58

60
Formulas Arithmetic Sum: 59

61
Formulas Sigma Form of Arithmetic Series: 10/6/2015 11:29 PM60

62
Example 1 Write in Sigma Notation, 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 + 17 + 19 + 21 61

63
Example 2 Write in Sigma Notation, 26 + 23 + 20 + 17 + 14 + 11 + 8 + 5 10/6/2015 11:29 PM62

64
Your Turn Write in Sigma Notation, 4, 15, 26, …, 301 10/6/2015 11:29 PM63

65
Example 3 Find the following sum: 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 + 17 + 19 + 21 64

66
Example 4 Find the following sum: 4, 15, 26, …, 301 10/6/2015 11:29 PM65

67
Your Turn Find the following sum: 15, 11, 7, …, –61 10/6/2015 11:29 PM66

68
Example 5 Evaluate 10/6/2015 11:29 PM67

69
Example 5 Evaluate 10/6/2015 11:29 PM68

70
Evaluate 10/6/2015 11:29 PM69 Example 6

71
Evaluate 10/6/2015 11:29 PM70 Your Turn

72
Write the expression in expanded form and then find the sum. = -5 + -3 + -1 + 1 = -8

73
Write the expression in expanded form and then find the sum. = 80 + 242 + 728 + 2186 = 3236

74
Consider the Sequence a) Write down an expression for S n.

75
Consider the Sequence b) Find S n for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5

76
Modeling Growth Is this an arithmetic series or geometric series? What is the common ration of the geometric series?

77
Sum of a Finite Geometric Series The sum of the first n terms of a geometric series is Notice – no last term needed!!!!

78
Formula for the Sum of a Finite Geometric Series n = # of terms a 1 = 1 st term r = common ratio What is n? What is a 1 ? What is r?

79
Example Find the sum of the 1 st 10 terms of the geometric sequence: 2,-6, 18, -54 What is n? What is a 1 ? What is r? That’s It!

80
Example: Consider the geometric series 4+2+1+½+…. Find the sum of the first 10 terms. Find n such that S n = 31 / 4.

81
log 2 32=n

82
Assignment

83
A r i t h m e t i c S e r i e s

84
When the famous mathematician C. F. Gauss was 7 years old, his teacher posed problem to the class and expected that it would keep the students busy for a long time. –Gauss, though, answered it almost immediately.

85
Suppose we want to find the sum of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4,..., 100, that is, 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5+ 6+ …+ 100

86
His idea was this: Since we are adding numbers produced according to a fixed pattern, there must also be a pattern (or formula) for finding the sum. –He started by writing the numbers from 1 to 100 and below them the same numbers in reverse order.

87
Writing S for the sum and adding corresponding terms gives: –It follows that 2S = 100(101) = 10,100 and so S = 5050.

88
We want to find the sum of the first n terms of the arithmetic sequence whose terms are u n = a 1 + (n – 1)d. –That is, we want to find:

89
Using Gauss’s method, we write: –There are n identical terms on the right side of this equation.

91
Find the sum of the first 40 terms of the arithmetic sequence 3, 7, 11, 15,... –Here, a = 3 and d = 4. –Using Formula 1 for the partial sum of an arithmetic sequence, we get: – S 40 = (40/2) [2(3) + (40 – 1)4] = 20(6 + 156) = 3240

92
W r i t e t h e f i r s t t h r e e t e r m s a n d t h e l a s t t w o t e r m s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a r i t h m e t i c s e r i e s. W h a t i s t h e s u m o f t h i s s e r i e s ?

93
71 + (-27) Each sum is the same. 50 Terms

94
Find the sum of the terms of this arithmetic series.

95
Find the sum of the terms of this arithmetic series. What term is -5?

97
Homework 6F Page 169 (1 – 11) Chose 9 For #8, Just do a) & b).

98
Formula for the Sum of a Finite Geometric Series n = # of terms a 1 = 1 st term r = common ratio

99
Example: Consider the geometric series 4+2+1+½+…. Find the sum of the first 10 terms. Find n such that S n = 31 / 4.

100
log 2 32=n

101
Homework 6G.1 Page 171 (1 – 5) #2a (Conjugate denominator)

102
Infinite Geometric Series Consider the infinite geometric sequence What happens to each term in the series? They get smaller and smaller, but how small does a term actually get? Each term approaches 0

103
Partial Sums Look at the sequence of partial sums: What is happening to the sum? It is approaching 1 0 1 It’s CONVERGING TO 1.

104
Here’s the Rule Sum of an Infinite Geometric Series If |r| < 1, the infinite geometric series a 1 + a 1 r + a 1 r 2 + … + a 1 r n + … converges to the sum If |r| > 1, then the series diverges (does not have a sum)

105
Converging – Has a Sum So, if -1 < r < 1, then the series will converge. Look at the series given by Since r =, we know that the sum is The graph confirms:

106
Diverging – Has NO Sum If r > 1, the series will diverge. Look at 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + …. Since r = 2, we know that the series grows without bound and has no sum. The graph confirms:

107
Example Find the sum of the infinite geometric series 9 – 6 + 4 - … We know: a 1 = 9 and r = ?

108
You Try Find the sum of the infinite geometric series 24 – 12 + 6 – 3 + … Since r = -½

109
Page 173 6G.2

111
Page 173 All 2 - 8 Homework REVIEW 6A (NO CALCULATOR) REVIEW 6B (WITH CALCULATOR)

Similar presentations

© 2024 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policy, including cookie policy.

Ads by Google