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Slide 1 Training Session : ITU-T Recommendation L.1420 ITU GREEN STANDARDS WEEK 17–21 September 2012 Paris, France.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Training Session : ITU-T Recommendation L.1420 ITU GREEN STANDARDS WEEK 17–21 September 2012 Paris, France."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Training Session : ITU-T Recommendation L.1420 ITU GREEN STANDARDS WEEK 17–21 September 2012 Paris, France

2 What is L.1420 ? What is it for? It is a Recommendation providing guidance on how to assess environmental impacts of ICT in organizations. –It has been built with a large number of representatives from the ICT sector and governments. It deals with energy consumption and GHG emissions. –It is in line with widely used international voluntary measuring and reporting schemes. It complements ISO and the GHG Protocol. This Recommendation covers: –The assessment of the life cycle environmental impact of ICT Goods, Networks and Services used by an organization (Non-ICT organizations) –The assessment of the environmental impact of an ICT organization (ICT organizations) –The reporting of these impacts to ensure fair and transparent communications

3 General Concepts L 1420 For ICT organizations L-1420 for Non-ICT organizations Conclusions Back-up information This presentation includes also information on how Alcatel Lucent uses this methodology Agenda

4 General Concepts L 1420 For ICT organizations L-1420 for Non-ICT organizations Conclusions Back-up information Agenda

5 The assessment of the environmental impact of an ICT organization. –An ICT organization is an organization, the core activity of which is directly related to the design, production, promotion, sales or maintenance of ICT goods, networks or services. The assessment of the life cycle environmental impact of ICT Goods, Networks and Services used by an non-ICT organization. –Other organizations The interpretation of these impacts and their fair and transparent reporting –Documentation is required This Recommendation does not address GHG removals or rebound effects –GHG removals for ICTs is not the highest priority –Rebound effects are still under study Scope

6 The Recommendation covers the 3 scopes: –Scope 1 (Direct emissions): Activities owned or controlled by your organization that release emissions straight into the atmosphere. Examples of scope 1 emissions include emissions from combustion in owned or controlled boilers, furnaces, vehicles. –Scope 2 (Energy indirect): Emissions being released into the atmosphere associated with your consumption of purchased electricity, heat, steam and cooling. These are indirect emissions that are a consequence of your organisations activities but which occur at sources you do not own or control. –Scope 3 (Other indirect): Emissions that are a consequence of your actions, which occur at sources which you do not own or control and which are not classed as scope 2 emissions. Examples of scope 3 emissions are business travel by means not owned or controlled by your organization, waste disposal, or purchased materials or fuels. Assessment and reporting for scope 1 and scope 2 emissions are mandatory. Assessment and reporting for scope 3 emissions are optional Scope

7 Relevance –Select GHG sources, data and methods appropriate to the assessment of the GHG emissions of ICT activities and organizations. Completeness –Include all specified GHG emissions that provide a material contribution to the assessment of GHG emissions arising from products. Consistency –Enable meaningful comparisons in GHG-related information. Accuracy –Reduce bias and uncertainties as far as practicable. Transparency –The organization shall disclose the information sufficiently to allow a third party to make decisions with confidence. Principles

8 General Concepts L 1420 For ICT organizations L-1420 for Non-ICT organizations Conclusions Back-up information Agenda

9 Setting the Organizational boundary Setting the Operational boundary Selection of quantification methodology Annual assessment/Establishment of a base year Recalculation of energy and GHG inventory (restatements) Uncertainties Reporting L-1420 for ICT organizations

10 The organizational boundaries should include all operations and subsidiaries used by the organization according to the consolidation approach –The equity share approach – under which a company accounts for GHG emissions from operations according to its interest in the operation. –The control approach – under which a company accounts for 100% of the GHG emissions from operations over which it has control. Control can be defined in either operational or financial terms. The operational control approach – a company has operational control over an operation if the company or one of its subsidiaries has the full authority to introduce and implement its operating policies at the operation. The financial control approach – a company has financial control over an operation if the company has the ability to direct the financial and operating policies of the operation with a view to gaining economic benefits from its activities. The Recommendation does not mandate any particular approach BUT the chosen approach shall be the only applied approach. Setting the Organizational boundary

11 In setting organizational boundaries and for corporate reporting of consolidated GHG emissions ALU employs the operational control approach in establishing organizational boundaries. –Under this approach, ALU will account for 100 percent of GHG emissions from operations over which it has operational control. –Thus, ALU is not required to account for GHG emissions from facilities in which it owns or leases, yet does not exert operational control. Operational control means that ALU has the full authority to introduce and implement its operating policies at the operation. –For leased facilities, operational control means that ALU has the ability to track energy use and/or emissions from the lease (i.e., ALU pays the utility bills of the leased facility). –In addition, facilities which are leased by ALU and have been subleased by ALU to tenants of which ALU does not have control of or responsibility for utility payments, are not considered to be under the Operational Control of ALU. Consolidation Approach Alcatel Lucent

12 Establishing operational boundaries involves –identifying GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with the organizations activities –Categorizing them as direct or indirect –Assigning the appropriate scope for accounting and reporting Not always an easy task!! Setting the Operational boundary

13 ALU has elected to include world-wide Scope 1, Scope 2 and Scope 3 activities within its operational boundaries, conducting emission assessments of the following designated greenhouse gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Setting the Operational boundary Alcatel Lucent

14 Facility Operations –Stationary Source Fuel Combustion Distillate Fuel Oil (#1, #2 #4 and Diesel) Residual Fuel Oil (#5 or #6) Natural Gas Propane Coal Gas Other –Mobile Source Fuel Combustion Gasoline Diesel Ethanol Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG-Propane) Jet Fuel Other –Direct Emission of GHGs Refrigeration And Air Conditioning Equipment Manufacturing, Laboratory or Product Development Operations Fire Suppression Equipment Corporate Function –Mobile Source Fuel Combustion Owned/Leased Aircraft Owned/Leased Vehicles Owned/Leased Marine Vessels Scope 1 Activities Alcatel Lucent

15 Facility Operations –Electricity Consumption –Purchased Hot Water/Vapor Consumption –Purchased Chilled Water Consumption Scope 2 Activities Alcatel Lucent

16 Purchased Goods & Services –Paper Purchase (Worldwide), Contract Manufacturing (Largest Suppliers), Contract Marine Vessels Fuel-and Energy-Related Activities Not Included in Scope 1 and 2 –Electric Transmission and Distribution losses Upstream Transportation and Distribution –Air Transport (Worldwide), Waterborne Craft Transport (Worldwide) Waste Generated in Operations –Energy Employed at Environmental Remediation Sites (United States), Energy Employed at Electrical Equipment Recycling Facilities (United States) Business Travel –Rental Cars (Worldwide), Rail (Worldwide), Air (Worldwide), Employee Personnel Vehicle Usage (Worldwide) Employee Commuting –Employee Commuting (Worldwide) Upstream Leased Assets –Leased Vehicles and Facilities presently Assessed as Scope 1 Downstream Transportation and Distribution –Air Transport (Worldwide), Waterborne Craft Transport (Worldwide) Processing of Sold Products –Planned Use of Sold Products –Planned End-of-Life Treatment of Sold Products –Planned Alcatel Lucent Scope 3 Activities

17 Selection or development of GHG emission factors Calculation of GHG emissions as under Selection of quantification methodology GWP factors for GHG taken from IPCC Time frame of 100 years

18 According to L.1420, the organization shall select or develop emission factors that : –are derived from a recognized origin, –are appropriate for the GHG source concerned, –are valid at the time of quantification, –take into account the quantification uncertainty and are calculated in a manner intended to yield accurate and reproducible results, and –are consistent with the intended use of the GHG inventory. Except for GWP factors, no strict recommendations are made –A lot of emission factors databases exist National : ADEME, DEFRA, US EPA International : IEA (International Energy Agency) –May be a need for improvement, since companies will choose their own emission factors sources, making comparisons relatively difficult and result consistency challengeable Emission factors

19 Emission Factors employed within the GHG Inventory Management System are: –USEPA Climate Leaders Greenhouse Gas Inventory Protocol Core Module Guidance Electricity Emission Factors were obtained from the following sources: –United States Source - eGRID EMISSION FACTORS –Canada: CO2e factors from Canada's "National Inventory Report –Australia: Australian Greenhouse Office Factors and Methods Workbook –UK: 2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting International Sources (unless noted otherwise): –CO2: International Energy Agency, "CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion –CH4/N2O: International Electricity Emission Factors by Country –International Energy Agency –Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) ALU will annually verify that references and emission factors are kept current When updated emissions rates become available, the inventory will subsequently be updated to reflect the correct emission rates for each year. Emission factors Alcatel Lucent

20 Emissions associated with marine fleet operations are dependent upon the Fuel Type and the volume of Fuel Used. Alcatel Submarine Networks Marine maintains a listing of all owned vessels with associated fuel consumption. All GHG estimation procedures are based on individual vessel assessments. Vessel: Lodbrog : 4,816 tonnes of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) Fuel Oil Density (kg/gal) : 3.75 (Residual Fuel Oil) –4,816,000 kg HFO/3.75 = 1,284,267 gallons HFO Emission factors –11.27 kg CO2/gallon –0.86 g CH4/gallon –0.30 g N2O/gallon Calculation –1,284,267 gallons×11.27 = 14,473,689 kg CO2 –1,284,267 gallons×0.86/1000 = 1,104 kg CH4 –1,284,267 gallons×0.30/1000 = 385 kg NO2 Total = [14,473,689 +1, ]/1000 = 14,616 tonnes CO2e Example of calculation Alcatel Lucent

21 Identify the relevant GHG activity data required under chosen GHG quantification methodology. Extract the data which is further required for GHG emission quantification. –Facility usage rates of electricity, fossil fuels, purchased steam and chilled water are obtained from invoices supplied by the service provider. –Mobile fleet usage is tracked via the corporate fueling card account program –Aircraft usage is tracked by the corporate travel agency –Employee personnel vehicle usage during business travel is tracked via corporate reimbursement activities. Put in place a data collection quality assurance! Define a document retention and control policy –What do you do with data in electronic form? –Disclosure policy to be set up Data Collection

22 Throughout the year each authorized Contributor will input applicable data into a web- based tool Facility usage rates of electricity, fossil fuels, purchased steam and chilled water are obtained from invoices and/or bills of lading. Refrigerant loss records are determined from maintenance reports provided by equipment service providers. Mobile fleet usage is tracked via the corporate fueling card account program. ALUs corporate aircraft usage is tracked by Corporate Center personnel. Employee personnel vehicle usage during business travel is tracked via corporate reimbursement activities. Records are to be retained on-site or stored at a designated location. At least annually, the Climate Change Department will request copies of the facility usage data. Data Collection Alcatel Lucent

23 Assessments shall be carried out on an annual basis with the date of publication of L.1420 as a reference. However, a different base year could be chosen when: –The organization estimates that the quantity and/or quality of available verifiable data for this particular different year would guarantee a more accurate evaluation of its GHG emissions and energy consumption. –The organization has already put in place an assessment and reporting process based on a different base year, compliant with this Recommendation. –The activities carried out by the organization generate unusual fluctuations of GHG emissions and/or energy consumption in such a way that the base year might not be significant. Any choice of a different base year shall be documented Annual assessment / Base year

24 Base Year –The base year is Annual assessment / Base year Alcatel Lucent

25 Applies under 2 circumstances: –Structural changes which include mergers, acquisitions and divestments and/or outsourcing or in-sourcing of GHG emitting activities. –Discovery of significant errors contained within the base year emission calculations which can necessitate a change in the emissions inventory. L.1420 makes no recommendations as to what constitutes a significant change and thus the need to adjust base year emissions Recalculation of energy and GHG inventory

26 Structural changes include mergers, acquisitions, and divestments and/or outsource or in-sourcing of GHG emitting activities. –Changes in the status of leased assets are considered structural changes. Methodology changes include changes in activity data accuracy, changes in emission factors, and/or changes in the methodology used to calculate GHG emissions. Alcatel Lucent defines a Significance Threshold requiring a change in the base year emissions : if it results in a 5% change in total GHG emissions. Changes due to New Emission Factors: –The emission factors will be changed for each of the previous years as well as the current one and the base year. Changes due to Errors: –Should errors be identified and corrections to the base year emissions will be made. Changes due to Data Accuracy and Availability: –an adjustment to the base year emissions may be required. –In such cases the Significance Threshold will be evaluated Recalculation of energy and GHG inventory Alcatel Lucent

27 An uncertainty assessment for GHG emissions and energy consumption shall be performed in accordance with ISO clause 5.4 to the extent needed to understand the inventory results. –It is part of a broader learning and quality process There are several type of uncertainties associated with GHG inventories (scientific, estimation, parameter, model, statistical, systematic). Analyzing and quantifying some uncertainty aspects are extremely difficult and likely beyond the scope of most organizations inventory efforts At present, there is no precise guidance on how to address all uncertainty related issues Uncertainties

28 The energy and GHG report content should contain: –A description of the reporting organization and the person responsible the reporting period or periods covered –Documentation of organizational boundaries and operational boundaries –A description of the quantification methodologies used within the framework of the study –The principles for collection of energy data, GHG activity data and emission factors –The results of the uncertainty assessment for GHG emissions and energy consumption performed according to ISO –The results of energy consumption assessment and GHG emissions assessment –Any recalculations including corrections of the corresponding clauses of the previous report(s). –A statement that the energy report and the GHG inventory report has been prepared in accordance with the principles outlined in the Recommendation. Reporting

29 Alcatel Lucent provides a report in line with L.1420 Recommendation All documents will be retained indefinitely in electronic form. Hardcopy versions of documents will be retained until goal year reporting is complete. The GHG Inventory reporting mechanism will be audited for compliance with current protocols and guidance annually. A third-party validation/verification organizations to audit our inventory management plan and greenhouse gas inventory program, annually. Corporate Climate Change Department to ensure that they have the resources to establish, implement, maintain and improve this program. Training sessions are conducted annually to discuss program objectives and requirements, including the goal and current progression towards the goal year Reporting and other management tools Alcatel Lucent

30 General Concepts L 1420 For ICT organizations L-1420 for Non-ICT organizations Conclusions Back-up information Agenda

31 Slide 31 Evaluation of energy consumption and GHG impact Setting the Organizational boundary Setting the Operational boundary Selection of quantification methodology Annual assessment/Establishment of a base year Recalculation of energy and GHG inventory (restatements) Uncertainties Reporting Recommendation L.1420 for Non-ICT organizations

32 Slide 32 For Non-ICT organizations, the methodology covers the use of ICT in any kind of organization, including but not limited to organizations such as banks, insurance companies and public administrations. The evaluation of the life cycle energy consumption and GHG impact when using ICT in organizations should be based –on the Recommendation ITU-T L.1410 Part I and –aggregated to an organizational level according to the principles outlined in this Recommendation. In a nutshell, you isolate your ICT-related activities from the rest of your business! Evaluation of energy consumption and GHG impact

33 Slide 33 Setting the Organizational boundary Setting the Operational boundary –Isolate the ICT-related part of the organization from the rest –A list of equipment to be taken into account is given Selection of quantification methodology Annual assessment/Establishment of a base year Recalculation of energy and GHG inventory Uncertainties Reporting Main differences with ICT organizations requirements The other parts are common to both types of organizations See Back-Up Slides

34 General Concepts L 1420 For ICT organizations L-1420 for Non-ICT organizations Conclusions Back-up information Agenda

35 This Recommendation is intending to help organizations to assess their GHG emissions and energy consumption This Recommendation is the unique standard (e.g. provided by an official SDO) in this domain. Nothing incredibly original – looks a lot like the GHG Protocol –Main objective is to unify the various assessment methods, not to re-create the wheel Several companies is in the act of checking the delta with their current process –Do we expect any big deviations ? Will certainly need improvements –Nobody is perfect –Sources of Emission factors –Too complicated? Too flexible? Too rigid? –…. Any feedbacks from other ITU Members and/or other stakeholders are welcome and will improve the L.1420 Recommendation. Conclusions

36 Thanks for your attention

37 General Concepts L 1420 For ICT organizations L-1420 for Non-ICT organizations Conclusions Back-up information Agenda

38 It relates to the direct GHG emissions generated by facilities within its organizational boundaries. Direct GHG emissions are principally the result of the following types of activities undertaken by the company: –Physical or chemical processing. Most of these emissions result from manufacture or processing of chemicals. It should be noted that this is applicable to ICT to a limited extent. –Transportation of materials, products, waste and employees. These emissions result from the combustion of fuels in company owned/controlled mobile combustion sources. –Fugitive emissions. These emissions result from intentional or unintentional releases such as SF6, equipment leaks from joints, seals, packing, and gaskets during the use of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, e.g. air conditioning for data centers and making wafers. –Combustion of fuels e.g. for power supply back-up of ICT goods and cooling of ICT goods. Scope 1

39 Scope 2 accounts for GHG emissions from the generation of purchased electricity consumed by the company. Purchased electricity is defined as electricity that is purchased or otherwise brought into the organizational boundary of the company. –For many companies, this represents one of the largest sources of GHG emissions –If the organization does not own the electricity lines, TD losses are not part of scope 2 –Purchase of electricity for sale to end-user are not in scope 2. Scope 2

40 Scope 3 emissions are all of the indirect emissions that result from a companys activities that are not Scope 2 emissions. They represent emissions that occur in the life-cycle steps of a product or process that occur before the companys activities, such as those resulting from the production and transport of raw materials. They also represent emissions that occur in the life-cycle steps of a product after a companys activities, such as from the transportation and use of products, as well as the disposal of waste materials. Trends in product use emissions must be interpreted carefully –It could be hard to figure out a realistic way of accounting for the product use –Not necessarily reflects the efforts made by the organization in reducing its footprint If an organization chooses to assess scope 3 GHG emissions, Appendix I in the Recommendation lists categories that should be taken into account by the organization when claiming compliance with this Recommendation. Scope 3

41 This means that it contains the information that report usersboth external and internal to the organizationconsider significant and need for their decision-making. The selection of reporting boundaries for GHG emissions is an important aspect of relevance. –The accounting and reporting boundaries should appropriately reflect the GHG emissions of the organization. –The choice of appropriate boundaries depends on the characteristics of the organization, the intended purpose of the GHG information, and the needs of the users. organizational structures and operational boundaries The business context Specific exclusions or inclusions, which should be transparently identified and the rationale provided. The boundaries should represent the substance and economic reality of the business, and not merely its legal form. Relevance

42 All emissions within the chosen organizational and operational boundaries that are material to users should be reported to allow the reporting organizations emissions to be assessed. In practice, a lack of data or the cost of gathering data may be a limiting factor in the completeness of the inventory. –When emissions have not been estimated, or have been estimated at an insufficient level of quality to be included, the potential impacts and relevancy of the exclusion should be transparently documented and explained. The principle of completeness is not contradicting the possible exclusion of negligible emissions. –L.1420 allows their exclusion if an explanation is given as to why they are excluded. –if the totals of emissions that are excluded are not considered significant by the users of the reported information, this should not be considered to be in violation of the principle of completeness. Completeness

43 Users of the report (and the organization itself!) may want to track and compare GHG emissions information over time in order to identify trends and to assess the performance of the reporting organization. –The consistent application of boundary definitions, accounting practices and calculation methodologies over time is essential for the production of comparable GHG emissions data. –The GHG information for all facilities within an organizations reporting boundary must be compiled in a manner that ensures that the aggregate information is internally consistent and consistent over time. –If there are changes in the scope, methods, data or any other factors affecting emission estimates, they should be transparently documented and justified. Consistency

44 As a means of promoting credibility in their reported emissions, organizations should ensure accuracy in their emissions estimation process. Data should be sufficiently accurate and precise to enable intended users to make decisions with confidence. –Because the intended uses of inventory data vary, the necessary level of accuracy will also vary. –Organizations should ensure that GHG measurements, estimates or calculations are systemically neither over nor under the true emissions value, as far as practicable. Need to balance the cost-effectiveness of obtaining accurate emissions estimates with the intended use for the emissions information. Accuracy

45 Transparency relates to the degree to which information on the processes, procedures, assumptions and limitations of the GHG inventory are disclosed. A transparent report will provide a clear understanding of the issues in the context of the reporting company, and a meaningful assessment of performance. –Information should be reported in a clear, understandable, factual, neutral and coherent manner. –Any changes to the data, methods or other factors affecting a time series of reported emissions should be transparently documented. –Information on internal audits or external third-party reviews should be included with the report. –Information should be recorded, compiled and analyzed in a way that enables internal reviewers and external verifiers to attest to its credibility. Transparency

46 Accounting for GHG emissions based on equity share is appropriate for: –Liability and risk management. GHG emissions accounting and reporting based on equity share provides a more representative and complete picture. Therefore, it provides a realistic picture of liabilities and risks to management, employees, shareholders. –Situations where greater resources are available for conducting the inventory. Reporting on the basis of equity share requires companies to obtain information from other parties for operations they do not control. –If this is not possible, they may need to estimate emissions from similar operations for which they have data. In either case, costs may be expected to be greater than for calculating emissions from sources under their operational control. Equity Share Approach

47 Reporting based on the operational control approach is appropriate for: –Performance tracking. Having operational control suggests a greater degree of influence than merely holding a share of the equity. –Situations where resources for inventorying emissions are limited. Reporting on the basis of operational control can be expected to be less costly than reporting on the basis of equity share because the reporting company will, by definition, have ready access to the data needed to estimate emissions. Operational Control Approach

48 Reporting based on the financial control approach is appropriate for alignment with financial accounting. –Similarly to the equity share approach, the financial control approach results in closer alignment between GHG accounting and financial accounting. –It should be noted that the financial control boundary does not include some arrangements that can be common in some industrial sectors. Petroleum sector Financial Control Approach

49 Evaluation of energy consumption and GHG impact Setting the Organizational boundary Setting the Operational boundary Selection of quantification methodology Annual assessment/Establishment of a base year Recalculation of energy and GHG inventory (restatements) Uncertainties Reporting L-1420 for Non-ICT organizations

50 For Non-ICT organizations, the methodology covers the use of ICT in any kind of organization, including but not limited to organizations such as banks, insurance companies and public administrations. The evaluation of the life cycle energy consumption and GHG impact when using ICT in organizations should be based –on the Recommendation ITU-T L.1410 Part I and –aggregated to an organizational level according to the principles outlined in this Recommendation. In a nutshell, you isolate your ICT-related activities from the rest of your business! Evaluation of energy consumption and GHG impact

51 The organizational boundaries should include all operations and subsidiaries used by the organization according to the consolidation approach –The equity share approach – under which a company accounts for GHG emissions from operations according to its interest in the operation. –The control approach – under which a company accounts for 100% of the GHG emissions from operations over which it has control. Control can be defined in either operational or financial terms. The operational control approach – a company has operational control over an operation if the company or one of its subsidiaries has the full authority to introduce and implement its operating policies at the operation. The financial control approach – a company has financial control over an operation if the company has the ability to direct the financial and operating policies of the operation with a view to gaining economic benefits from its activities. The Recommendation does not mandate any particular approach BUT the chosen approach shall be the only applied approach. Setting the Organizational boundary

52 Identify emissions related to… –design, production and use of ICT goods and associated support equipment present in the organization. –design and production of ICT associated consumables present in the organization. –software and ICT services purchased by the organization concerned. –disposal of all ICT goods present in the organization, disposal of consumables (e.g. worn cartridges or waste paper) and end of life associated with software and ICT services purchased by the organization. A list of ICTs is given in the Recommendation Setting the Operational boundary

53 Desktops; Laptops; Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) screens; Flat screens; Individual printers; Cables; Network printers and copiers; Servers, switches and routers; Fax machines; Scanners; Fixed phones; Mobile phones; Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) and tablets; Projectors; Videoconference installations; Televisions; Cooling systems for ICT goods; Other small ICT goods; Outsourced ICT goods, in particular outsourced datacenters; ICT-Dedicated Power supply back-up generators. List of ICTs to be considered

54 Emission sources including the following activities (in scope 3) may also be considered: –daily commute to work and business travel of Information Technology (IT) department staff. –freight of purchased ICT goods entering the organization. –freight of ICT goods within the organization premises. –and freight of ICT goods leaving the organizations premises when decommissioned. Data ordinarily comes from invoices, reports for corporate reimbursement activities, estimated energy usage and applied emission factors… For each of the three scopes (if all covered) the selected emission sources shall be clearly described and documented. Setting the Operational boundary

55 Selection or development of GHG emission factors Calculation of GHG emissions as under Selection of quantification methodology GWP factors for GHG taken from IPCC Time frame of 100 years

56 According to L.1420, the organization shall select or develop emission factors that : –are derived from a recognized origin, –are appropriate for the GHG source concerned, –are valid at the time of quantification, –take into account the quantification uncertainty and are calculated in a manner intended to yield accurate and reproducible results, and –are consistent with the intended use of the GHG inventory. Except for GWP factors, no strict recommendations are made –A lot of emission factors databases exist National : ADEME, DEFRA, US EPA International : IEA (International Energy Agency) –May be a need for improvement, since companies will choose their own emission factors sources, making comparisons relatively difficult and result consistency challengeable Emission factors

57 Identify the relevant GHG activity data required under chosen GHG quantification methodology. Extract the data which is further required for GHG emission quantification. –Facility usage rates of electricity, fossil fuels, purchased steam and chilled water are obtained from invoices supplied by the service provider. –Mobile fleet usage is tracked via the corporate fueling card account program –Aircraft usage is tracked by the corporate travel agency –Employee personnel vehicle usage during business travel is tracked via corporate reimbursement activities. Put in place a data collection quality assurance! Define a document retention and control policy –What do you do with data in electronic form? –Disclosure policy to be set up Data Collection

58 Assessments shall be carried out on an annual basis with the date of publication of L.1420 as a reference. However, a different base year could be chosen when: –The organization estimates that the quantity and/or quality of available verifiable data for this particular different year would guarantee a more accurate evaluation of its GHG emissions and energy consumption. –The organization has already put in place an assessment and reporting process based on a different base year, compliant with this Recommendation. –The activities carried out by the organization generate unusual fluctuations of GHG emissions and/or energy consumption in such a way that the base year might not be significant. Any choice of a different base year shall be documented Annual assessment / Base year

59 Applies under 2 circumstances: –Structural changes which include mergers, acquisitions and divestments and/or outsourcing or in-sourcing of GHG emitting activities. –Discovery of significant errors contained within the base year emission calculations which can necessitate a change in the emissions inventory. L.1420 makes no recommendations as to what constitutes a significant change and thus the need to adjust base year emissions Recalculation of energy and GHG inventory

60 An uncertainty assessment for GHG emissions and energy consumption should be performed in accordance with ISO clause 5.4 to the extent needed to understand the inventory results. –It is part of a broader learning and quality process There are several type of uncertainties associated with GHG inventories (scientific, estimation, parameter, model, statistical, systematic). Analyzing and quantifying some uncertainty aspects are extremely difficult and likely beyond the scope of most organizations inventory efforts At present, there is no precise guidance on how to address all uncertainty related issues Uncertainties

61 The energy and GHG report content should contain: –A description of the reporting organization and the person responsible the reporting period or periods covered –Documentation of organizational boundaries and operational boundaries –A description of the quantification methodologies used within the framework of the study –The principles for collection of energy data, GHG activity data and emission factors –The results of the uncertainty assessment for GHG emissions and energy consumption performed according to ISO –The results of energy consumption assessment and GHG emissions assessment –Any recalculations including corrections of the corresponding clauses of the previous report(s). –A statement that the energy report and the GHG inventory report has been prepared in accordance with the principles outlined in the Recommendation. Reporting


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