Presentation on theme: "Aristotle’s Three Types of Persuasive Rhetoric Logos Ethos Pathos."— Presentation transcript:
Aristotle’s Three Types of Persuasive Rhetoric Logos Ethos Pathos
What is Rhetoric? What is said ( message ) Who is saying it ( speaker ) Who is listening ( audience ) Where / when it is being said ( context, appeals ) Why it is being said ( purpose ) How it is being said ( tone, style )
What is rhetoric? Rhetoric is the skillful use of language. The goal of rhetoric is to change others’ point of view or to move others to take action. Precise, thoughtful, purposeful language and images are tools for persuasion/argument.
What is the Rhetorical Triangle? Shows the relationship between speaker, audience, message, style, purpose, tone Understanding these rhetorical elements makes both writing and analysis much clearer
The Speaking Triangle Aristotle described two ways one can examine rhetoric. The first is called the Speaking Triangle. Aristotle believed that the structure and language of an argument are determined by the interaction between the speaker, audience, and subject of a text. MESSAGESPEAKER TONE STYLE PURPOSE AUDIENCE
The Rhetorical Triangle Message SpeakerAudience ToneStyle Purpose
What are logos, ethos, and pathos? Logos = Logic Ethos = Ethics, Image Pathos = Emotions (Passion)
The rhetorical triangle is typically represented by an equilateral triangle, suggesting that logos, ethos, and pathos should be balanced within a text. However, which aspect(s) of the rhetorical triangle you favor in your writing depends on both the audience and the purpose of that writing. Yet, if you are in doubt, seek a balance among all three elements. Logos (reason/text/subject/message) Ethos Pathos (credibility/writer/speaker) (values,emotions,audience)
Logos Logos is an argument based on facts, evidence and reason. Using logos means appealing to the readers’ sense of what is logical. Logos appeals to reason. Logos can also be thought of as the text of the argument, as well as how well a writer has argued his/her point.
Ethos Ethos is an argument based on character. Using ethos means the writer or speaker appeals to the audience’s sense of ethical behavior. The writer or speaker presents him or herself to the audience as credible, trustworthy, honest and ethical. Ethos can also be thought of as the role of the writer in the argument, and how credible his/her argument is. “I am an ethical expert, so believe what I say.”
Pathos Pathos = argument based on feelings Pathos appeals to the emotions and the sympathetic imagination, as well as to beliefs and values. Pathos can also be thought of as the role of the audience in the argument.
The Message Consider this when trying to identify the exact message: What is the topic (1-2 words) about which the piece is written? What is the most important aspect or perspective about that topic that the author wants you to understand? What, exactly, does the author want the reader to think/do/feel/say? What is the “no” on the other side of the author’s “yes?” (And vice versa)
The Rhetorical Triangle Message SpeakerAudience
The Tone What is the author’s attitude about his / her subject / message? What words in the message let you know the tone? How does the selection of the tone affect the audience’s reception of the message? Is it appropriate for the occasion/subject matter?
The Rhetorical Triangle Message SpeakerAudience Tone
The Tone ZealousApatheticReticent Condescending Conciliatory Complimentary RemorsefulResignedNostalgic Self-Deprecating DetachedHaughty SardonicSarcasticIrreverent
The Style What strategies does the author employ in order to get his / her message across? These strategies may include: ethos, logos, pathos; organization; diction; syntax; figurative language; grammatical structure; selection of details; imagery
The Rhetorical Triangle Message SpeakerAudience ToneStyle
The Rhetorical Purpose Under what circumstances is the author addressing his/her audience? In other words, what is going on in the world at the time this text was composed, and how do those events affect the text? What is the “no” on the other side of the author’s “yes”?
The Rhetorical Triangle Message SpeakerAudience ToneStyle Purpose
Logos – An Appeal to Logic Aristotle defined Logos as an argument based on evidence such as facts, statistics, testimonies, and those based on logical reasoning and common sense. Appealing to Logos is important because it demonstrates a speakers expertise on a subject by providing evidence to support her claim.
Ethos – An Appeal to Character Aristotle defined Ethos as an appeal character that demonstrates a speaker is trustworthy (ie: street cred). A speaker evoking ethos can be a writer, orator, painter, graphic novelists, songwriter, blogger, etc.
Pathos – An Appeal to Emotion Aristotle defined Pathos as a way a speaker engages the audience to illicit an emotional response, be it nostalgia, anger, compassion, etc. Evoking Pathos is important for a speaker to establish a bond between himself and his audience.
As you watch the following clip, identify elements of ethos/pathos/logos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S_DQUAuNUvw
SOAPSTone Speaker – Ethos Occasion – Why and When speech is given. Audience – The people who observe or listen to the speech and their expectation and reaction. Purpose – What is the speech trying to do to the audience? Subject – What the speech is about? Tone – The attitude of the speaker. Another tool one can use to analyze rhetoric is SOAPSTone. If the Rhetorical Triangle is a wide angle lens of a speech, SOAPSTone is the close-up shot.
Remember the Titans http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DEOHbqcJ uvI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DEOHbqcJ uvI http://prezi.com/8nlwccpco4ch/remember-the- titans-gettysburg-speech/ http://prezi.com/8nlwccpco4ch/remember-the- titans-gettysburg-speech/ As you watch the following clip, identify elements of ethos/pathos/logos
The rhetorical triangle is typically represented by an equilateral triangle, suggesting that logos, ethos, and pathos should be balanced within a text. However, which aspect(s) of the rhetorical triangle one favors in their writing depends on both the audience and the purpose of that writing. Yet, if you are in doubt, seek a balance among all three elements. Logos (reason/text) Ethos Pathos (credibility/writer) (values,emotions,audience)
Speaking Triangle Example Let us listen to Lou Gehrig’s farewell address: Speaker: Speakers create a persona, or character in which he/she presents oneself. Gehrig cast himself as the humble hero who courageously fought a deadly disease Audience: An audience has an expectation of a speaker that is either confirmed, denied, or altered. Gehrig’s audience expected him to have self-pity for himself after being diagnosed with a fatal illness, but instead he declared he was “the luckiest man on earth.” Subject: Subjects are the topic addressed by the speaker and the context in which the speech is given. Gehrig gave his farewell address at a sold-out Yankee Stadium to announce his sudden retirement. The audience assumed Gehrig would discuss his “bad break,” but instead he gave a motivational speech focusing on how he was “the luckiest man on earth.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=626Dt9JdjQs
Speaking Triangle Application Watch the following scene from the movie Braveheart and identify the speaker, audience, and subject of this speech. http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=lEOOZDbMrgE
Analyzing Logos: Is the thesis clear and specific? Is the thesis supported by strong reasons and credible evidence? Is the argument logical and arranged in a well-reasoned order? Ethos: What are the writer’s qualifications? How has the writer connected him/herself to the topic being discussed? Does the writer demonstrate respect for multiple viewpoints by using sources in the text? Are sources credible? Are sources documented appropriately? Does the writer use a tone that is suitable for the audience/purpose? Is the diction (word choice) used appropriate for the audience/purpose? Is the document presented in a polished and professional manner? Pathos: Are vivid examples, details and images used to engage the reader’s emotions and imagination? Does the writer appeal to the values and beliefs of the reader by using examples readers can relate to or care about?