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Implementation of IPTV Content Delivery network and NG-CD Technology

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1 Implementation of IPTV Content Delivery network and NG-CD Technology
ITU-T Workshop on Bridging the Standardization Gap and Interactive Training Session (Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010 ) Implementation of IPTV Content Delivery network and NG-CD Technology Yeong-il Seo, Director KT Network R&D Lab Good Afternoon Everyone! At last, this is the final presentation time that everyone is waiting from the floor. I’m Yeong-il Seo from KT & I’m taking charge of NG CD technology research project in KT network R&D Lab. Based on my 14years KT IP network deployment experience, I’m going to introduce the implementation issues and experiences of IPTV CD network. And I’m going to tell the trend and new paradigm of content delivery technology for IPTV. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

2 IPTV Content Delivery model Multicast deployment issues for IPTV
Contents IPTV Content Delivery model Multicast deployment issues for IPTV Multicast VPN for IPTV P2P as Content Delivery technology P4P introduction as NG-CD With brief touch of IPTV Content Delivery Model, I am going to share the experience of KT multicast network deployment, and essential design considerations for IPTV multicast. After that I’m going to touch the P2P trend and characteristics and future step from the Teco’s point of view. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

3 IPTV Content Delivery model
Main: real time broadcast channel service Main : VoD Real time broadcast channel + VoD Native IP Multicast model High Available, QoS guaranteed, Secure, Stable IPTV multicast network Alternative Multicast (Unicast) model Server based CDN based P2P based Hybrid Model Native IP multicast + Alternative multicast Overlay multicast + + We have 3 different CD models for IPTV. 1st, for the transmission of real time broadcast channel service, we can consider Native IP multicast model. In this model, we need High Available, QoS guaranteed, Secure, Stable IPTV multicast network. 2nd, for the transmission of VoD service, we can consider Alternative multicast model. In this model, Server based or CDN based, or P2P based approach are available as implementation way. Last model is hybrid model between native IP multicast and alternative one, and we can say that overlay multicast is good example of this model. In this point, we can have following question. Do U think those 3 models are enough to provide successful deployment of IPTV Business for Telco and CP? I don’t think so. We thought IPTV itself as the strongest killer application for Telco and CP. But as money making perspective, current IPTV models needs something different approach and new paradigm & trend. We call such new trend as NGCD model, which is based on the collaboration between Telco & CP. This model will be touched in detail next part of my presentation. Next Generation Content Delivery Model ? Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

4 IPTV CD network architecture
VoD (Hot source) APT CO HE router VoD IX, overseas, IDC IPTV Advanced IP BB Edge HE router Big aggregation switch IPTV HeadEnd Center Small Aggregation SW (L3) mcast internet Customer side access BB HeadEnd IGMPv2 PIM-SM MSDP layer features HE center/ VoD server farm ㅇ Bi-directional IPTV service, PPV service, Data broadcast service, VOD service, T-Internet/ T-Communication service BB (IP Premium) ㅇ Guarantee of Real time broadcast service stability : QoS guarantee, HA for Multicast network, Stable multicast routing, OAM, Multicast Security Access (aggregation SW) ㅇ IP address assignment and authentication ㅇ Multicast features & QoS enabled Small L3 ㅇ Last mile device for PIM-SM/IGMP, QoS enabled STB ㅇIPTV data decoding, IGMP, VoD(D&P or Streaming), SD/HD, H.264/MPEG2/WMT In this slide, I would like to make a brief introduction of KT IPTV service components. We have a central Broadcast station, called by HE center which is generating 300 multicast channels and huge amount of VoD contents. And we also have a lot of distributed VoD cache-server farms located in edge side. To provide the stable multicast features for IPTV, we did a lot of field test, and we deployed such multicast features in our IPTV infrastructure, described in this slide Our IPTV network is composed of 3 network layers, BB, access, and customer network. Those three layers are providing multicast QoS, multicast HA, multicast security features successfully. From next slide I’m gonna get a deep dive for IPTV multicast deployment and design issues. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

5 IPTV CD network requirement for implementation
Advanced IP network technology in converged IP network High Quality TPS, especially PSTN emulation service over IP High Quality IPTV service with stable IP multicast technology Wibro service Multicast VPN, Managed VPN, Managed L/L for enterprise customer Which advanced IP network technology are needed ? 5years ago, based on network convergence trend, KT deployed IP premium BB. I was taking charge of deployment of that network. This premium BB is providing KT’s 4 major services, one major service is high quality TPS, including PSTN emulation service over IP, and VoIP and DVC service. The most important network requirement for these services is the guarantee of extreme QoS and high availability. Next major service is wibro. For stable wibro service in our Premium BB, we need IPv6 capability and QoS and security. Those are the basic feature over wired and wireless line. Next killer major service is IPTV. For the guarantee of stable real time broadcasting transmission, we absolutely need for multicast HA and multicast QoS, and stable multicast routing infrastructure and multicast security features. Last major service is VPN for enterprise customer, even though we are managing separate vpn access line from premium edge, we are sharing core of premium BB. To accommodate these 4 major services in one converged network, we need some advanced IP network technology, HA, QoS, MPLS, IPv6, Multicast, Security, and mVPN, etc. Based on a lot of field test result and experience, we deployed whole those features successfully in our converged IP premium network. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010 One Network, Multi Services!

6 IPTV CD network deployment issue
Design considerations for IPTV multicast Address High availability QoS Security Multicast Topology Multicast Addressing issues IANA allocation of class D address http://www.iana.org/assignments/multicast-addresses For interoperable multicast channels, Should use ‘GLOP’ address. Globally routed private address : 233/8 How to use? : bit official AS #.0/24 Ex) KORNET Case (AS number 4766) : /24, Other AS number 5662 case : /24 Site-local address : 239/8 There are some important design consideration issues for IPTV multicast. First check point is multicast address issue. For the compatibility or interoperability of each IPTV SP’s multicast channels, we need some agreement between each service providers. In case that if we don’t keep that agreement, we have to use separate multicast address translator. IANA is recommending the allocation assignment of class D address. According to that assignment, for providing interoperability of each SP’s multicast channels, we should use GLOP address 233/8. In GLOP address expression, by inserting each SP’s 16bit official AS number in 233 class D address range, we can identify each IPTV SP’s channel address area. Not interoperable case, we can use private AS number in GLOP expression or site-local address 239/8. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

7 Design considerations for IPTV multicast : HA
Other Unknown Why HA ? Which HA features? Multicast Traffic ready condition for whole PIM links The Use of Static IGMP Join, No service interruption from Link/Node failure No service interruption from PIM neighbor cutoff Fully redundant system architecture & topology Robust network against Any DoS attacks ISSU QoS : Perfect provisioning, Diffserv for IPTV traffic and monitoring 9% Link Failure 36% Router Operations Time to Recover from Layer1 failure Congestion 32% Software Upgrade Hardware Upgrade Configuration Errors Congestion: 5% 23% Router Failures Software failures Hardware failures DOS Attacks * Source: University of Michigan Here is a Michigan university paper, which is describing the statistic about the origin of ISP BB failure. According to that paper, we can catch something important that the volume of link congestion origin is only 5%. But the other 95% origin is related with availability event, such as link failure or router operations or router failure. So we can say that QoS guarantee feature like Diffserv, perfect BW provisioning against link congestion, is one of small subset of HA feature. Let’s see which HA features are necessary for IPTV multicast service. As the 1st one HA feature, if we use static IGMP join, we can make multicast traffic ready condition for popular IPTV channels. That is, a possible way to guarantee no service interruption from link and node failure. In extreme HA case, we can prepare TOP-N popular multicast channel traffic for whole PIM links. As the next other HA features, we need to provide ‘no service interruption from PIM neighbor cut off’ and, we need to implement fully redundant system architecture and topology and also we need to implement the robust network security feature against any DoS attacks. ISSU is also important feature for HA, and if I say QoS feature again for HA, it may be a cliché. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

8 Design considerations for IPTV multicast : Security
Critical issue for multicast network RP security RP : Group range filtering For example, except approved GLOP address for KT IPTV service (: /24), whole other group range should be filtered in RP. PIM register message filtering : only approved source can register to RP MSDP SA filter : Limitation for SA information per MDSP peer, per source, per instance PIM router security Multicast Route limit To protect network against any kind of Worm attack via multicast routing update BSR message filtering PIM authentication among each neighbors TCP/ICMP message filtering for 224/4 Because only UDP traffic around 224/4 is used for IPTV service Last mile PIM router Filtering all multicast traffic except approved IGMP join messages ; Protection against multicast source spoofing Security is another critical issue for multicast network design. 1st one considering point for multicast security is ‘RP security’. RP group range filtering and PIM register filtering feature can be used for only approved multicast channels and sources. Flooding of source active message information in MSDP can make a serious security issue, so we have to make the limitation of SA information. 2nd considering point for multicast security is ‘PIM router security’. To protect our multicast network against any kind of worm attack via multicast routing update, we need to limit the number of multicast route. BSR message filtering and PIM authentication between each PIM neighbors are also PIM router security issues. Only UDP traffic around 224/4 is used for IPTV multicast transmission in KT, we can filter TCP/IGMP message for 224/4 address area. Last multicast considering point for multicast security is ‘Last mile PIM router security’. For protecting our multicast source against source spoofing from customer side, we can filter all multicast traffic except approved IGMP join messages. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

9 Design considerations for IPTV multicast : Topology
Optimal RP positioning ? RP position vs. Multicast traffic delay ? RP position vs. Multicast Stability ? Loop free, Delay/Jitter independent, stability guarantee topology Optimal position to exchange SA information amongst multicast service provider Tree topology case like KT, Best test result : HE=RP Optimal RP redundancy ? Dynamic RP vs. Anycast RP Multicast Traffic Load balancing issue Based on source IP, channels Here, we have a very important design considering point for Stable IPTV multicast Topology. RP positioning and redundancy are critical issues for optimal PIM-SM topology design. To get the optimal RP position, we can consider the relation between RP position and multicast traffic delay, and the relation between RP position and multicast stability. And we can consider optimal RP position to exchange SA information amongst multicast service providers KT IP network is a typical tree-base topology, and whole traffic source and IPTV contents are located in the metropolitan area, like Korea’s population distribution. In such topology, we did take a lot of test to get the optimal RP position with considering such conditions and various scenarios. Here U can see an interesting test result. In the tree topology case like KT, the optimal RP position is HE router. HE router means the nearest PIM router that sources can register to. According to test result, if the RP is located to more receiver side, we can expect more unstable PIM-SM topology. In the process of PIM link failure and recovery, some loop problem can be occurred, caused by timer gap between RPF check and PIM hello Let’ talk about RP redundancy. We have two implementation ways for RP redundancy. One is Dynamic RP redundancy; we usually know that dynamic RP redundancy is BSR way. The other is anycast RP redundancy, which is providing same RP address for each RPs and static RP configuration at each PIM routers. We compared those two implementation ways with 4 criteria, and a lot of tests also. As you can see in this table, we found that anycast RP is the best way for RP redundancy. In configuration and troubleshooting point, anycast RP is much easier than dynamic RP. As you know, BSR is using a little bit complex procedure to choose RP from their candidate PIM routers, like priority calculation or the calculation of hash function table. The most critical reason that we can not accept BSR is that a lot of vendors do not support BSR feature except cisco and juniper. And in BSR case, service recovery time of RP failure is around 3 minutes, but anycast case only less than 1 sec. And the final multicast topology issue is load balancing feature of multicast traffic. Multicast traffic should be load balanced based on source and multicast group in multiple PIM links. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

10 Multicast VPN for IPTV & case study
With multicast VPN Bidirectional e-learning/internal broadcasting service for VPN customer Customized Advertisement service for Bank/Hospital/Gas station/Fast-food chain store/Department store/Government agency etc. MPLS L3VPN case Usually, Metro Ethernet, TDM access line MPLS Label binding for multicast traffic is Not available. With GRE, multicast traffic can be transmitted through each VRF’s MDT. X4Biz(IPSec VPN) case Usually, xDSL access line Also, IPSec cannot handle multicast traffic. With GRE, multicast traffic can be transmitted through each IPSec tunnel. GRE over IPSec  Multicast over IPSec VPN To provide multicast service for MPLS VPN users, we need to provide mVPN feature. As you know, in current IP technology status, it is impossible to make MPLS label binding for multicast traffic, so we need mVPN technology, with GTE tunnel, we can make virtual multicast distribution tree for MPLS VPN user. By using of multicast VPN technology, it is possible to provide bidirectional e-learning, internal broadcasting services for VPN customers. KT has two different VPN type, one is MPLS L3VPN which has metro Ethernet and TDM access line. As already mentioned in previous slide, MPLS label binding for multicast traffic is not available. By using of GRE, we can solve this issue, which is based on draft Rosen mVPN technology. The other VPN case is X4Biz case, which has xDSL access line via public internet and use IPSec VPN technology. Also IPSec cannot handle multicast traffic, therefore, by using of GRE, we can solve this issue again. With GRE, multicast traffic can be transmitted through each IPSec tunnel. KT is the 1st company to provide this multicast over IPSec VPN. PE * VPE : VPN Edge router * PE : Premium Edge router Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

11 P2P Trends as Content Delivery
Explosive increase of P2P traffic in ISP BB Good technology, but not so good impact on modern society Infringement of copyright : Free sharing of music & movie titles With P2P, Kids can easily access to pornographic/violent movies. P2P must be a major menace to Telco Explosive increase of P2P traffic force ISP’s CAPEX/OPEX increase. P2P based IPTV, SoIP, CDN OK, let’s jump to the P2P issue as content delivery. I don’t want to deny P2P is good technology. But P2P made a serious headache in these days, P2P must be a major menace to Telco. And, also P2P do not give so good impact on modern society. By free sharing of music and movie titles, most P2P users make the infringement of copyright. With checking the object ingredient in P2P, the percentage of video traffic is more than 70%. With P2P traffic analysis, we also found that the volume of top 5% heavy user is almost half of total traffic. Explosive increase of P2P traffic is forcing ISP BB investment increase, And P2P applications are attacking Telco’s major growing business market, IPTV, SoIP, CDN, etc. User % Traffic rate 1% 27% 5% 49% 10% 63% 20% 80% Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

12 Why Heavy User traffic increase ?
Why Heavy User traffic increase ? : Multi-flow unfairness issue TCP fairness issue : In current IP network, Same Bandwidth per each TCP flow Each flow’s BW= 1/total flow By exploiting ‘TCP fairness issue’, such as P2P application, Host, who is using P2P application, can generate bulk TCP flows and can monopolize bandwidth usage in some specific congested link. Lifetime of P2P session is maintained until each file transfer is complete (minutes~hours), it can make normal users slowdown HTTP, FTP HTTP 100 Mbps shared Link P2P HTTP 100 Mbps shared Link Host A Host A Host B Host B P2P over UDP case UDP traffic injection in congested link  TCP traffic : more serious performance degradation More serious concern, a matter of time, go on increasing Related article : “BitTorrent declares war on VoIP, gamers!” Gamers, VoIP and video conference users beware. The leading BitTorrent software authors have declared war on you ~~~~~~~the developers of the uTorrent P2P application have decided to make the UDP protocol the default transport protocol for file transfers. In this point, we can have some interesting question. Why heavy user traffic keeps increasing? Internet has a serious problem of multi-flow unfairness issue. In current IP network, we have TCP fairness characteristic, which is allocating same BW per each TCP flow. Let me say detail explanation of multi-flow unfairness issue in this left picture. Host A has 6 flows and host B has just one http flows, so in congestion case host A will use 6/7 BW of 100 Mbps shared link, but host B case can use only 1/7 BW of that link. By maliciously using of such multi-flow unfairness characteristic, P2P application can make P2P user a heavy user. P2P application user can generate bulk TCP flows and can monopolize bandwidth usage in some specific congested link. And the Lifetime of P2P session is maintained until each file transfer is complete (minutes~hours), it can make normal users slowdown. Here another serious case: P2P over UDP. If UDP traffic continuously injected in congested link, TCP traffic will get much more serious performance degradation. We found that these UDP traffic is increasing in ISP BB in these days, so it will be a big issue in near future. U know, the CTO of BitTorrent declared ‘war on VoIP and Gamer’ the year before last year, that means uTTorent is already use UDP as transport protocol for file transfer. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

13 Impact & Menace of P2P technology as CD on Telco’s business
Low-cost P2P based CDN solution Low price broadband subscriber line with P2P CDN solution Sales Loss of Telco IDC Big Menace to Telco’s TPS P2P based free/low cost SoIP solution, P2P over Wifi/Wibro/LTE Emergence of P2P based low cost/free VoIP solution such as Skype(out)  Collapse of PSTN overseas call market, menace to Telco SoIP market P2P based low cost VoIP solution over wireless/mobile internet access  menace to cellular communication market Wifi Direct, Wifi P2P  direct P2P communication amongst Wifi terminal which has AP capability P2P based IPTV In CAPEX/OPEX perspective, by using of P2P based IPTV solution, Portal/OTT can have ‘cost competitive advantage’ comparing with Telco case. Easy free riding of Telco network, not necessary to deploy total IPTV network/server Here, another impact of P2P technology on Telco, first CDN business and next TPS business. By using of Low price broadband subscriber line with P2P based CDN solution, P2P CDN provider proposed big price competitiveness, so bunch of portal are moving their servers from Telco’s IDC to these cheap P2P solution, so Telco can loose money in IDC market. The Emergence of P2P based low cost VoIP solution such as Skype(out) was making the Collapse of Telco’s PSTN overseas call market, and it must be a menace to Telco SoIP market. And P2P based low cost VoIP solution over wireless/mobile internet access also can be a menace to cellular communication market. From the Wifi Direct, Wifi P2P solution, they are preparing the direct P2P communication amongst Wifi terminal which has AP capability. In CAPEX/OPEX perspective, by using of P2P based IPTV solution, Portal/OTT can have ‘cost competitive advantage’ comparing with Telco case. Because they can easily free ride Telco’s network and they don’t have to deploy total IPTV network/server like Telco case. As the example of P2P based IPTV solution is VUDU, they are providing On-line DVD rental business by using of Hybrid P2P Technology. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

14 cf. P2P based content delivery solution
I summarized some example of P2P based content delivery solution for your convenience. Peering portal and icube are Korean domestic P2P vendors. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

15 P4P introduction as NG-CD
P4P (Proactive network Provider Participation for P2P) Definition : Framework for ISP and P2P application to collaborate for the optimization of peer-to-peer connections Why P4P ? “Close & Optimal” peer selection for the performance increase of P2P application With P2P traffic localization, increase of ISP’s network efficiency and save of ISP CAPEX/OPEX P4P is collaboration model between ISP and P2P application for the optimization of P2P connections. Comparing with traditional CDN and P2P technology, P4P can save resource cost and can provide better performance at same time. In P4P operation, by choosing physically close peer instead of some internet transit peer, we can get “Close & Optimal” peer selection for the performance increase of P2P application. And with P2P traffic localization effect, we can make the increase of ISP’s network efficiency and save of ISP CAPEX/OPEX. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

16 P4P introduction as NG-CD
P4P component iTracker (ISP Portal Service) From ISP’s Network information  iTacker is providing ‘optimal path and topology information’ to pTracker pTracker (Application Tracker, AppTracker) Interworking with iTracker, pTracker is providing ‘optimal peer information’ to each P2P application Case study Comcast case (draft-livingood-woundy-p4p-experiences-02) Application download performance increase Overall P2P download performance : 15% increase Comcast internal P2P download performance : 50% ~ 80% increase P2P traffic localization effect Upload traffic : 34% decrease Download traffic : 80% decrease Comcast was making a field trial of P4P in their network. And they summarized such test result as draft document in IETF ALTO WG. According to Comcast trial result of P4P, we can catch that the performance of P2P application download dramatically increases, and P2P traffic is localized very hard. Upload traffic : 34% decrease, Download traffic : 80% decrease. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

17 IETF trend for NG-CD ALTO information export service
P2P application service delivery optimization Application Level Traffic Optimization P4P:Provider Portal for P2P Applications) P2P traffic localization effect Application download performance increase NG-CD based on Routing Proximity Best path for content routing by using of ISP network information Routing info, BW info, Performance info from RTT/one-way delay As the Next Generation content delivery technology, P4P has a big portion in IETF ALTO WG. ALTO stands for ‘Application Level Traffic Optimization’. From the Awareness of network information, each application level can get the better performance of transmission. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010

18 Thank you ! Q & A Q & A How to contact speaker? Tel : +82-42-870-8333
Skype ID : syi101 Thank you ! That’s all I want to touch in this session. Thank you for your patience, Any question? ~~~~~~~~ Thank you very much. Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 29 June – 1 July 2010


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