Presentation on theme: "Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Implementation of Optical Submarine Systems as a backbone infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region Forum on: Implementation."— Presentation transcript:
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Implementation of Optical Submarine Systems as a backbone infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region Forum on: Implementation of decisions of the World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly-08 (WTSA-08) Nadi, Fiji - 16 September 2009 Paolo Rosa Workshops and Promotion Division Head, Workshops and Promotion DivisionTelecommunicationStandardizationBureau
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 World submarine cable links
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Functional Grouping of Rec.s on Optical Technology (1) CategoryRecsTitle Optical fibres and cables: definitions and test methods G.650.1Definition and test methods for linear, deterministic attributes of single mode fibre and cable G.650.2Definition and test methods for statistical and non-linear related attributes of single mode fibre and cable G.650.3Test methods for installed single-mode optical fibre cable links Optical fibres and cables: multimode fibres G.651 Characteristics of a 50/125 m multimode graded index optical fibre cable G.651.1Characteristics of a 50/125 µm multimode graded index optical fibre cable for the optical access network Optical fibres and cables: single- mode fibres G.652Characteristics of a single-mode optical fibre and cable G.653Characteristics of dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fibre and cable G.654Characteristics of a cut-off shifted single-mode optical fibre and cable G.655Characteristics of a non-zero dispersion shifted single-mode optical fibre and cable G.656Characteristics of a fibre and cable with non-zero dispersion for wideband transport G.657Characteristics of a Bending Loss Insensitive Single Mode Optical Fibre and Cable for the Access Network Spectral gridsG.694.1Spectral Grids for WDM Applications: DWDM Frequency Grid G.694.2Spectral Grids for WDM Applications: CWDM Wavelength Grid
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Functional Grouping of Rec.s on Optical Technology (2) CategoryRecsTitle Physical optical interfaces G.691Optical interfaces for single-channel STM-64, STM 256 and other SDH systems with optical interfaces G.692Optical interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers G.693Optical interfaces for intra-office applications G.695Optical interfaces for Coarse WDM multiplexing applications G.696.1Longitudinally Compatible Intra Domain DWDM applications G.698.1Multichannel DWDM applications with single channel optical interfaces G.698.2Amplified multichannel DWDM applications with single channel optical interfaces G.957Optical interfaces for equipment and systems relating to the synchronous digital hierarchy G.959.1Optical transport networks physical layer interfaces Free space optical systems G.640Co-location longitudinally compatible interfaces for free space optical systems All Optical NetworksG.680Physical Transfer functions of Optical Networks Elements Optical monitoringG.697Optical Monitoring for DWDM systems Optical safetyG.664Optical safety procedures and requirements for optical transport systems
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Functional Grouping of ITU-T Rec.s on Optical Technology (3) CategoryRecsTitle Optical amplifiers, components and subsystems G.661Definition and test methods for the relevant generic parameters of optical amplifier devices and subsystems G.662Generic characteristics of optical amplifier devices and subsystems G.663Application related aspects of optical amplifier devices and sub-systems G.665Generic characteristics of Raman amplifiers and Raman amplified subsystems G.666Characteristics of PMD compensators and PMD Compensating Receivers G.667Characteristics of Adaptive Chromatic Dispersion Compensators G.671Transmission characteristics of optical components and subsystems Optical fibre submarine cable systems G.971General features of optical fibre submarine cable systems G.972Definition of terms relevant to optical fibre submarine systems G.973Characteristics of repeaterless optical fibre submarine cable systems G.974Characteristics of regenerative optical fibre submarine cable systems G.975Forward error correction for submarine systems G.975.1Forward error correction for high bit rate DWDM submarine systems G.976Test methods applicable to optical fibre submarine cable systems G.977Characteristics of optically amplified optical fibre submarine cable systems G.978Characteristics of optical fibre submarine cables
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Construction, protection, installation and maintenance: L-series ITU-T Recommendations Construction, installation and maintenance of all types of terrestrial and shallow water cables for public telecommunications, including optical cables, and the associated hardware. Installation, jointing, protection and maintenance of cables. Reliability and security, cable performance, field deployment and integrity of installations for mixed transmission media, such as hybrid fibre / copper cables.
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 ITU-T Recommendations on spectral grids DENSE WDM: G.694.1, G.692, G.698.1, G.698.2 and G.959.1. Definition of frequency grids to support DWDM applications. Four specific frequency grids defined: 12.5 - 25 GHz - 50 GHz - 100 GHz spacing All four frequency grids include 193.1 THz No frequency limits beyond which the grid is not defined. Additional wider spacing frequency grids can be used by taking integer multiples of 100 GHz spacing i.e. 200 GHz, 300 GHz, 400 GHz, etc. COARSE WDM: G.694.2, G.695 Definition of a wavelength grid to support CWDM applications. Designed to allow simultaneous transmission of several wavelengths with sufficient separation to permit the use of uncooled sources. Channel spacing of 20 nm determined mainly by three factors: the laser manufacturer is allowed a wavelength variation around the nominal wavelength in order to achieve a higher yield and/or relax fabrication tolerances the use of uncooled lasers will cause the wavelength to change with temperature within the specified temperature range of the laser. sufficient guardband between the channels to allow the use of low cost filter technologies.
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Optical Submarine Cables
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 The elements Terrestrial Terminals Equipment, Repeaters & Optical Amplifiers Branching Units (active / passive) Cables, structures (AA,A,LW,L) Deep sea and beach cable joints The power feeding equipment
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Type of Fibers: G.65x Series non-dispersion shifted Single-Mode Fibre (SMF) defined in [G.652]; Dispersion Shifted single-mode Fibre (DSF) defined in [G.653]; Cut-off Shifted single-mode Fibre (CSF) defined in [G.654]; Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted single-mode Fibre (NZDSF) defined in [G.655]; Wideband Non-Zero Dispersion single-mode Fibre (WNZDF) defined in [G.656].
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 G.971-General features of optical fibre submarine cable systems
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Cables Parameters and definitions – Submarine portion: see [G.972] (1005). –Optical submarine repeater: see [G.972] (1020). –Cable Breaking Load: see [G.972] (5007). –Double Armoured Cable: see [G.972] (5004). –Fibre-Breaking Cable Load: see [G.972] (5008). –Minimum Cable Bending Radius: see [G.972] (5032). –Nominal Operating Tensile Strength: see [G.972] (5010). –Nominal Permanent Tensile Strength: see [G.972] (5009). –Nominal Transient Tensile Strength: see [G.972] (5011). –Rock Armoured Cable: see [G.972] (5005). –Single Armoured Cable: see [G.972] (5003). –Relative Dispersion to Slope: see [G-Sup.40] (2006). –Terminal Transmission Equipment: see [G.972] (1010).
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Optical amplification: a) EDFA Multichannel application b) Raman amplification EDFA: atoms are pumped to a high energy state and then drop to a lower state, releasing their energy when a suitable wavelength photon passes nearby. Raman Scattering: nonlinear interaction between the signal and a pump laser within an optical fibre. As light travels down the fiber, energy is coupled from the shorter wavelength channels, boosting the amplitude of the longer wavelength (90 nm shift) a) b)
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 From design to operation First idea & evaluation of alternatives (MIUs) The first design & restoring techniques The survey and implementation design The power budget & Straight Line Diagram Quality Assurance program, factory inspections and elements qualification The manufacturing process and testing The loading, system integration & monitoring The laying & monitoring The final splice & commissioning tests The service
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Restoring and Maintenance Submarine system as a space satellite Agreements for deposits of spare parts Programming restoring and qualifications Rerouting Reparation
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 CS Vercors cableship: work
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 CS Vercors cableship: enjoy…
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 NEXT ACHIEVEMENTS Multi-wavelength (up to 64 Coarse and Dense) bi-directional 3 rd windows (1 550 nm) Bit rate up to 10 Gbit/s per fiber/direction/wavelength Maximum span length with optical amplifiers up to 150 km, 700 km regeneration span Maximum capacity 1.2 TBit/s => 5.12 TBit/s
Forum Fiji 16 September 2009 Thank you Paolo ROSA Head, Workshop and Promotion Division ITU - Telecommunication Standardization Bureau email@example.com ITU Committed to Connecting the World