 Kinematics in 2-Dimensional Motions. 2-Dimensional Motion Definition: motion that occurs with both x and y components. Example: Playing pool. Throwing.

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Kinematics in 2-Dimensional Motions

2-Dimensional Motion Definition: motion that occurs with both x and y components. Example: Playing pool. Throwing a ball to another person. Each dimension of the motion can obey different equations of motion.

Solving 2-D Problems Resolve all vectors into components x-component Y-component Work the problem as two one-dimensional problems. Each dimension can obey different equations of motion. Re-combine the results for the two components at the end of the problem.

Sample Problem You run in a straight line at a speed of 5.0 m/s in a direction that is 40 o south of west. a)How far west have you traveled in 2.5 minutes? b)How far south have you traveled in 2.5 minutes?

Sample Problem You run in a straight line at a speed of 5.0 m/s in a direction that is 40 o south of west. a)How far west have you traveled in 2.5 minutes? b)How far south have you traveled in 2.5 minutes? 40 o

Sample Problem You run in a straight line at a speed of 5.0 m/s in a direction that is 40 o south of west. a)How far west have you traveled in 2.5 minutes? b)How far south have you traveled in 2.5 minutes? v = 5 m/s,  = 40 o, t = 2.5 min = 150 s v x = v cos  v y  = v sin  v x = 5 cos 40v y  = 5 sin 40 v x = v y  = x = v x ty = v y t x = ( )(150)y = ( )(150) x = y = v = 5 m/s vxvx vyvy

Projectiles

Projectile Motion Something is fired, thrown, shot, or hurled near the earth’s surface. Horizontal velocity is constant. Vertical velocity is accelerated. Air resistance is ignored.

1-Dimensional Projectile Definition: A projectile that moves in a vertical direction only, subject to acceleration by gravity. Examples: Drop something off a cliff. Throw something straight up and catch it. You calculate vertical motion only. The motion has no horizontal component.

2-Dimensional Projectile Definition: A projectile that moves both horizontally and vertically, subject to acceleration by gravity in vertical direction. Examples: Throw a softball to someone else. Fire a cannon horizontally off a cliff. You calculate vertical and horizontal motion.

Horizontal Component of Velocity Is constant Not accelerated Not influence by gravity Follows equation: x = V o,x t

Horizontal Component of Velocity

Vertical Component of Velocity Undergoes accelerated motion Accelerated by gravity (9.81 m/s 2 down) V y = V o,y - gt y = y o + V o,y t - 1/2gt 2 V y 2 = V o,y 2 - 2g(y – y o )

Horizontal and Vertical

Zero Launch Angle Projectiles

Launch angle Definition: The angle at which a projectile is launched. The launch angle determines what the trajectory of the projectile will be. Launch angles can range from -90 o (throwing something straight down) to +90 o (throwing something straight up) and everything in between.

Zero Launch angle A zero launch angle implies a perfectly horizontal launch. vovo

Sample Problem The Zambezi River flows over Victoria Falls in Africa. The falls are approximately 108 m high. If the river is flowing horizontally at 3.6 m/s just before going over the falls, what is the speed of the water when it hits the bottom? Assume the water is in freefall as it drops.

Sample Problem The Zambezi River flows over Victoria Falls in Africa. The falls are approximately 108 m high. If the river is flowing horizontally at 3.6 m/s just before going over the falls, what is the speed of the water when it hits the bottom? Assume the water is in freefall as it drops. y o = 108 m, y = 0 m, g = -9.81 m/s 2, v o,x = 3.6 m/s v = ?

Sample Problem The Zambezi River flows over Victoria Falls in Africa. The falls are approximately 108 m high. If the river is flowing horizontally at 3.6 m/s just before going over the falls, what is the speed of the water when it hits the bottom? Assume the water is in freefall as it drops. y o = 108 m, y = 0 m, g = 9.8 m/s 2, v o,x = 3.6 m/s v = ? Gravity doesn’t change horizontal velocity. v o,x = v x = 3.6 m/s V y 2 = V o,y 2 - 2g(y – y o ) V y 2 = (0) 2 – 2(9.8)(0 – 108) V y =

Sample Problem The Zambezi River flows over Victoria Falls in Africa. The falls are approximately 108 m high. If the river is flowing horizontally at 3.6 m/s just before going over the falls, what is the speed of the water when it hits the bottom? Assume the water is in freefall as it drops. y o = 108 m, y = 0 m, g = 9.8 m/s 2, v o,x = 3.6 m/s v = ? Gravity doesn’t change horizontal velocity. v o,x = v x = 3.6 m/s V y 2 = V o,y 2 - 2g(y – y o ) v = V y 2 = (0) 2 – 2(9.8)(0 – 108) V y =

Sample Problem Playing shortstop, you throw a ball horizontally to the second baseman with a speed of 22 m/s. The ball is caught by the second baseman 0.45 s later. a)How far were you from the second baseman? b)What is the distance of the vertical drop? Should be able to do this on your own!

General Launch Angle Projectiles

General launch angle  vovo Projectile motion is more complicated when the launch angle is not straight up or down (90 o or – 90 o ), or perfectly horizontal (0 o ).

General launch angle  vovo You must begin problems like this by resolving the velocity vector into its components.

Resolving the velocity Use speed and the launch angle to find horizontal and vertical velocity components  VoVo V o,y = V o sin  V o,x = V o cos 

Resolving the velocity Then proceed to work problems just like you did with the zero launch angle problems.  VoVo V o,y = V o sin  V o,x = V o cos 

Sample problem A soccer ball is kicked with a speed of 9.50 m/s at an angle of 25 o above the horizontal. If the ball lands at the same level from which is was kicked, how long was it in the air?

Sample problem A soccer ball is kicked with a speed of 9.50 m/s at an angle of 25 o above the horizontal. If the ball lands at the same level from which is was kicked, how long was it in the air?

To Be Continued…

Projectiles launched over level ground These projectiles have highly symmetric characteristics of motion. It is handy to know these characteristics, since a knowledge of the symmetry can help in working problems and predicting the motion. Lets take a look at projectiles launched over level ground.

Trajectory of a 2-D Projectile x y Definition: The trajectory is the path traveled by any projectile. It is plotted on an x-y graph.

Trajectory of a 2-D Projectile x y Mathematically, the path is defined by a parabola.

Trajectory of a 2-D Projectile x y For a projectile launched over level ground, the symmetry is apparent.

Range of a 2-D Projectile x y Range Definition: The RANGE of the projectile is how far it travels horizontally.

Maximum height of a projectile x y Range Maximum Height The MAXIMUM HEIGHT of the projectile occurs when it stops moving upward.

Maximum height of a projectile x y Range Maximum Height The vertical velocity component is zero at maximum height.

Maximum height of a projectile x y Range Maximum Height For a projectile launched over level ground, the maximum height occurs halfway through the flight of the projectile.

Acceleration of a projectile g g g g g x y Acceleration points down at 9.8 m/s 2 for the entire trajectory of all projectiles.

Velocity of a projectile vovo vfvf v v v x y Velocity is tangent to the path for the entire trajectory.

Velocity of a projectile vyvy vxvx vxvx vyvy vxvx vyvy vxvx x y vxvx vyvy The velocity can be resolved into components all along its path.

Velocity of a projectile vyvy vxvx vxvx vyvy vxvx vyvy vxvx x y vxvx vyvy Notice how the vertical velocity changes while the horizontal velocity remains constant.

Velocity of a projectile vyvy vxvx vxvx vyvy vxvx vyvy vxvx x y vxvx vyvy Maximum speed is attained at the beginning, and again at the end, of the trajectory if the projectile is launched over level ground.

 vovo -- vovo Velocity of a projectile Launch angle is symmetric with landing angle for a projectile launched over level ground.

t o = 0 t Time of flight for a projectile The projectile spends half its time traveling upward…

Time of flight for a projectile t o = 0 t 2t … and the other half traveling down.

Position graphs for 2-D projectiles x y t y t x

Velocity graphs for 2-D projectiles t Vy t Vx

Acceleration graphs for 2-D projectiles t ay t ax

Projectile Lab

The purpose is to collect data to plot a trajectory for a projectile launched horizontally, and to calculate the launch velocity of the projectile. Equipment is provided, you figure out how to use it. What you turn in: 1. a table of data 2. a graph of the trajectory 3. a calculation of the launch velocity of the ball obtained from the data

Sample problem A golfer tees off on level ground, giving the ball an initial speed of 42.0 m/s and an initial direction of 35 o above the horizontal. b)The next golfer hits a ball with the same initial speed, but at a greater angle than 45 o. The ball travels the same horizontal distance. What was the initial direction of motion?

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