Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Frame Relay Performance Peter Hicks Acting Rapporteur Q2/17 Data Network Performance Tel: + 61 3 9253 6308 Fax: + 613 9253 6777"— Presentation transcript:
Slide 1 Frame Relay Performance Peter Hicks Acting Rapporteur Q2/17 Data Network Performance Tel: Fax:
Slide 2 Why worry about Network Performance Importance: –Network Management & Planning –Both customers & network operators have an interest (contractual arrangements / SLAs) Benefits of understanding performance –Able to provide Performance Guarantees for customers –Accurate and cost effective dimensioning and network provisioning –Customer reporting –Compliance with International Standards / National Regs.
Slide 3 ITU-T Performance Objectives Framework End to end performance 3 x 3 matrix Network (X.25, FR, ATM, IP) TERM. Access Information Transfer Criteria Function Speed Accuracy Dependability Disengage- ment Call setup delay Availability (function of the primary parameters Packet, Frame, cell transfer delay Throughput Residual error rate User information misdelivery prob. Call setup error probability Call setup failure probability Call Clearing (Delay) Premature disconnect probability Call clear failure probability User information loss probability - eg Frame Loss Ratio Access/call setup Info Transfer Disengagement call clearing Dependability Accuracy Speed Availability Only the Info transfer stage is applicable to IP networks
Slide 4 Packet Network Performance ATM, Frame Relay, X.25 all examples of Packet Switching technologies Connection oriented; simultaneous circuits (virtual circuits) able to be supported on a single access line For FR and ATM, no acknowledgment of frames / cells sent into the network (requires transport layer protocol to ensure end to end data integrity) Can essentially use the same techniques for measuring and quantifying performance Performance (Loss & delay) is very dependent on the network architecture, the capacity provided within the network (buffering and transmission trunk speed) and traffic loading.
Slide 5 What are the important parameters that can be readily measured? X.25: –throughput and packet transfer delay, Call setup delay Frame Relay: for CIR or EIR traffic –Frame transfer delay, Frame delay jitter & Frame loss ratio ATM –Cell transfer delay, Cell delay variation, Cell loss ratio IP (best effort / connectionless) –packet transfer delay, traffic flows –packet loss ratio –packet delay jitter
Slide 6 Frame Relay Performance Parameters User information transfer performance parameters for the FR PVC services defined in X.144 Key Primary Performance Parameters: –User information Frame Transfer Delay –Frame Delay Jitter –Frame Loss Ratio –Residual Frame Error Ratio –Extra Frame Rate
Slide 7 Frame Relay Performance Parameters Connection set-up performance parameters for the FR SVC services defined in X.145 Key Performance Parameters –Connection Set-up Delay –Disconnect Delay –Release Delay –Connection set-up error probability –Connection set-up failure probability
Slide 8 Frame Relay Performance Parameters Frame Transfer Delay –time taken for a frame to traverse the network. Time taken commences when the first bit of frame is transmitted and ends when the last bit of the frame is received Frame Loss Ratio (FLR c or FLR e ) –The ratio of lost frames to total number sent for either the committed or excess traffic streams Frame Delay Jitter = FTD Max – FTD Min Residual Frame Error Rate –The rate of errored frames arriving at the destination Extra Frame Rate –The rate at which extra frames which were not part of the source traffic are detected in the destination traffic stream
Slide 9 Frame Relay Performance Parameters Frame Based Conformant Traffic Distortion: –distortion from the traffic contract, measure of clumping or spacing of traffic bursts Connection Set-up Delay –Time interval between the occurrence of a Set-up message and the occurrence of the corresponding return Connect message Dis-connect Delay –one way delay based on the transport of the a disconnect message from the clearing to the cleared end terminal.
Slide 10 FR Performance Objectives Objective values for frame transfer delay, frame loss ratio & frame delay jitter specified in ITU-T Recommendation X.146 End to end objectives (not including contributions of the access line) apply to an international frame relay data connection. National Network (portion) allocated 34.5% of the end to end objective for FTD & FLR International Network (portion) allocated 31% of the end to end objective for FTD & FLR 4 Quality of Service classes specified
Slide 11 X.146: FLR, FTD FDJ Objectives Service Class FLR FTD: 256 byte Frames FDJ 0No upper bound Not applic. 1< 1 X % < 400 ms 95 % < 52 ms 2< 3 X % < 400 ms 95 % < 17 ms 3< 3 X % < 150 ms 95 % < 17 ms
Slide 12 FR Performance Objectives - Notes All values are provisional and they need not be met by networks until they are revised (up or down) based on real operational experience. The FTD objectives apply edge-to-edge. For FTD performance, all objectives apply to frames of size 256 (i.e. to frames with user information fields of 256 octets). If frames of size 128 are used to estimate compliance with these objectives, then the following tighter 95th percentile objectives of for FTD should be used; 380 ms for classes 1 & 2, and 130 ms for class 3. –Frame Relay Forum have specified 128 octet frame size –Networks with high speed backbone should meet objective when using 512 frame size In the case of service class 3, if the international portion route length exceeds 9300 km, an allowance of 6.25 ms per 1000 km of route length is allocated to the international portion.
Slide 13 Frame Transfer Delay Highly sensitive to network topology/architecture, internode trunk transmission speeds & traffic levels Can predict delay by simple model Can measure using echo / loop back techniques –avoids use of synchronised real-time clocks at remote sites –simple to setup, approach favoured / adopted by ITU –extensive testing of X.25 (and Frame relay & ATM) Can also use OAM techniques specified in X.148 and FRF.19 (Requires OAM to be implemented)
Slide 14 Impact of performance objectives on network design The transfer delay performance objectives and geographic span impose a maximum transit node limit. –Network Architecture and Infrastructure impact For example the mean frame transfer delay (Class 3) objective across a national FR network (excluding the customers access lines) is specified in Recommendation X.146 as 34.5% of 150ms, and can be used to calculate the maximum number of nodes that a frame can transit.
Slide 15 Simple model to calculate transit delay Notes 1. Model can be applied to X.25, Frame Relay, ATM or IP networks 2. Propagation delay may or may not be a dominant component of the overall delay. This depends on distance, trunk transmission speeds and pkt size.
Slide 16 Transit Delay Model The model consists of a concatenation of nodes and internode transmission links. Each FR switch can be characterised by a mean (or worst case) processing delay of N ms. The transmission time across the internode trunks is dependent or the size of the data frame and the transmission speed and can also be expressed as a fixed delay of L ms. The propagation delay is distance dependent (5ms/1000 km) but can be readily calculated for each internode transmission section as tp i. Propagation delay may or may not be a significant component of the overall delay. Hence overall delay depends on distance (propagation delay), trunk transmission speeds & frame size.
Slide 17 Transfer Delay Model (cont) Using this model an active connection can be shown as: –a series of (k-1) transmission links (l 1 to l k-1 ) through k switching nodes (n 1 to n k ).. –each link l i has a clocking delay of L ms –each link has a propagation delay of tp i & –each switch n i has a processing & queuing delay of N ms.
Slide 18 Expression for mean transit delay The mean or alternatively the upper-bound - worst case packet transfer delay across the network is readily calculated as mean delay approx = (k-1)L + Propagation Delay + kNmean worst case delay < (k-1)L + Propagation Delay + kNworst-case With a high speed backbone (34 Mbits/s) the transmission (clocking) delay for a 1024 byte data Frame is 240 s. This delay reduces to 53 s if the transmission backbone is 155 Mbits/s. For a 48 byte Frame the clocking delay is approximately 3 s. The switching and queuing delay (the variable parameter) through a high speed ATM/FR switch is of the order of 1ms. Over long distances the dominant factor will be the propagation delay (Melbourne to Perth 17 ms, Melbourne to Sydney 5ms, Perth to Brisbane 28 ms). For old style X.25 networks with low speed (64kbit/s) transmission trunks, switching/clocking delay may dominate _
Slide 19 Expression to calculate maximum number of switching nodes From the above expressions we can also derive an expression for the maximum number of switching (or routing) stages within a network (L+ N) ( Delay Objective + L – Prop-delay ) Max number of hops k = For example for a National FR network, delay objective = 52ms Assume Geographic span 4000 km -> Prop Delay = 20ms Frame size 256 Bytes, Trunk transmission 34 Mb/s -> L = 61 s For N = 2 ms: k=15.6 maximum node of switches = 15
Slide 20 Clocking delay for various transmission rates and frame sizes
Slide 21 Effect of transmission delay and frame size on FTD Consider a national network which has a geographic span of 4000 km, consisting of 8 switching stages and inter-trunk transmission speeds of 2Mbit/s. Each switch contributes 1ms of queuing delay. Propagation delay 5ms / 1000km. For a 256 octet test frame, each trunk will contribute a clocking delay of 1 ms. (see Table 1). The total FTD is calculated as 8 x 1 ms km x x 1 ms = 35 ms. This network meets the national portion FTD objective allocation of ms for Class 3 FR Services. For a 512 octet test frame, each trunk will contribute a clocking delay of 2 ms. (see Table 1). The total FTD is calculated as 8 x 1 ms km x x 2 ms = 42 ms. This network meets the national portion FTD objective allocation of ms for Class 3 FR Services.
Slide 22 Effect of transmission delay & frame size on network architecture Question: Can a network with 10 switching stages and a trunk speed of Mbit/s meet the national portion FTD objective allocation for class 3 if a frame size of 512 octets is used? –what is the maximum frame size allowed in order to meet the objective Question: Show that that only in the case where the number of switching stages exceeds eight (8), and the inter-node trunk transmission speed is than Mbit/s or less will the national portion FTD objective be exceeded when the test frame size is 512 octets
Slide 23 Practical Measurement of transit delay Accurate measurement of transit delay requires synchronised real time clocks located at appropriate locations. Very expensive alternative technique / practical low cost method required. measure the round trip delay time of a 256 byte test frame sent to an echo facility or loop back –echo facility receives a frame and retransmits the frame on the same virtual connection –echo technique standardised in Rec X.139 & ( X.148) Use OAM (FRF.19 frames) techniques as per X.148
Slide 24 Measurement of Network Transit Delay using echo technique Test DTE Echo device X.36 FR network Access lines can be at different speeds Ideally echo device retransmits after set period of time. Use 256 octet test frame.
Slide 25 Measurement of round trip delay time Define: Tr = round trip delay time to the echo facility Td = access line transmission delay (1ms for 256 byte frame transmitted at kbit/s) Tnw = Network transit delay Tech = Echo facility delay Assuming the echo facility is connected to destination pkt exchange by kbit/s line Tnw ~ Tr/2 - 2Td - Tech/2
Slide 26 Application of echo technique to measure national & international transit delay National network delay can be made by locating echo device at the international gateway exchange establish logical channels to national gateway exchange and to a destination international gateway. Define t1 = round trip delay time to national gateway t2 = round trip delay time to destination international gateway t int = (t2 - t1)/2 - tgw where tgw = transit delay of the destination gateway
Slide 27 Core Switch Core Switch Core Switch Core Switch Core Switch Perth Canberra Melbourne Sydney Brisbane Access Switch loopback (128 kbit/s) Access Switch Access Switch loopback (128 kbit/s) Access Switch loopback (128 kbit/s) Access Switch loopback (128 kbit/s) Access Switch loopback (128 kbit/s) Access Switch loopback (128 kbit/s) Central Measurement Test Equipment 155 Mbit/s Trunk between core switches 34 Mbit/s Trunk from core to access switch d = distance [km] t p = propagation delay [ms] Legend for transmission links: d = 3500 km t p = 17 ms d = 500 km t p = 3 ms d = 500 km t p = 3 ms d = 1000 km t p = 5 ms d = 1000 km t p = 5 ms 256 kbit/s access A B A B Arrangements for Performance testing for ATM & FR
Slide 28 Some Frame Relay Transfer Delay Results FR traffic test source located at Melbourne, used 512 octet test frame one way delay to other capital cities Sydney (1000 km)11 ms Brisbane (2000 km)18 ms Canberra (500km)11 ms Perth (3500 km)24 ms each switch contributes in the order of ms end to end delay dominated by propagation delay, but switching & clocking delay of the edge / access switches make noticeable contributions
Slide 29 Frame Loss Ratio Performance Rec X.146 specifies 1 X for Class 1 network Measurement of Frame loss ratio for CIR traffic –mean monthly figure < 1 X –worst case 4 X » Have we over dimensioned the network? Is our Class 0 network providing Class 3 service? Loss ratio very dependent on network dimensioning and traffic levels Also noting the large number of small frames (voice and TCP acknowledgment) causing some functional processors to be very heavily loaded. If the switch becomes overloaded it discards frame
Slide 30 Whats new from Q2/17 New Recs covering: – FR Network Availability – Metrics for FR/ATM Service Inter-working – Performance of IP over FR – FR OAM
Slide 31 FR Network Availability Availability is the percentage of time that the network can successfully transfer frames. Availability is a Key parameter often specified in SLAs Traditional ITU approach is to choose a significant primary performance parameter (eg FLR) and assess the performance of a connection against a defined threshold for that parameter. –For example: If the FLR > 10% over a period of time the connection is declared to be unavailable. New Rec X.147 provides a number of options for assessing availability – based on use of OAM Frames or Status messages
Slide 32 Availability vs Connectivity Availability (ITU) –represents the point at which the IP service is so bad as to be unusable: eg. extremely high packet loss will impact on the achieved transfer rate (FTP or HTTP) but the transport layer protocols will still work. –(a digit bearer is consider unavailable if BER>10 -3 for 10 consecutive seconds : Rec G.826) Connectivity (IETF IPPM) –defines the period when there is no working route between source and destination - nothing gets through. Perhaps we need both
Slide 33 Performance of IP over FR What is the performance of an IP network when the backbone infrastructure (connectivity) is provided by FR connections Can the IP service classes defined by Y.1541 be supported? Propagation delay dominant for long distances. Difficult to achieve a user-to-user IPTD of 100ms on long IP Paths. New Rec X.FRIP provides guidelines for use of frame relay as the lower layer transport.
Slide 34 Metrics to characterise FR/ATM Service Interworking Performance FR ATM IWF FR DTE ATM DTE The ATM DTE has no knowledge that it is talking to a FR DTE. The FR DTE has no knowledge that it is talking to an ATM DTE. FR / ATM Service Interworking
Slide 35 FR/ATM Service Interworking Metrics End-to-end performance or the performance of the IWF can be characterized by the following user layer parameters: –Data Block Delivery Ratio –Data Block Transfer Delay –Data Block Delay Jitter Parameters are independent of the FR or ATM Traffic Contracts
Slide 36 FR OAM SG13 developed I.620 (1998) covering FR OAM –Only basic functionality defined - detection of fault conditions using loop-back frames –SG13 have agreed to withdraw I.620 in favour of FRF.19 Frame Relay Forum have developed FR.19 –Extensive capabilities to monitor primary performance parameters FTD, FLR (Data Delivery Ratio) and fault detection For completeness of the FR Recommendations propose new Rec X.FROAM (text to be technically aligned with FRF.19 )