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1 GRL Introduction Lin Liu University of Toronto April 2001.

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1 1 GRL Introduction Lin Liu University of Toronto April 2001

2 2 Why Goal-Orientation?? van Lamsweerde (ICSE 2000) Systematic derivation of requirements from goals Goals provide rationales for requirements Goal refinement structure provides a comprehensible structure for the requirements document Alternative goal refinements and agent assignments allow alternative system proposals to be explored Goal formalization allows refinements to be proved correct and complete.

3 3 Where Are We?? Laterequirements Architecturaldesign Detaileddesign Implementation GRL KAOS SDL UML object-orientedprogramming [Mylopoulos AOIS99] UCM

4 4 Development-World model refers to and reasons about… Operational-World models Alt-1 Alt-2 To-be As-is

5 5 Outline 1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL 2. An example goal-oriented non-functional requirement analysis process 3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architectural design 4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL 5. Related works

6 6 Goals and Softgoals in GRL

7 7 Tasks in GRL

8 8 Goal Refinement: Means-ends Link Task Refinement: Decomposition Link

9 9 Softgoal Operationalizations: Contribution Relationship Side-effects to softgoals: Correlation Relationship

10 10 Resource in GRL

11 11 Non-Intentional Elements in GRL Acting as parameters in GRL intentional elements, i.e., topics of softgoal, Object attributes of goal, task and belief Referring to entities of an external model, such as responsibilities in UCM, class/objects in UML class diagram,…

12 12 Belief in GRL Convergence of media reduces cost of ownership

13 13 Outline 1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL 2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process 3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design 4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL 5. Related works

14 14 Softgoal Operationalization Example

15 15 Softgoal Operationalization Example (contd)

16 16 Example (contd)

17 17 Example (contd)

18 18 Outline 1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL 2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process 3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design 4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL 5. Related works

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22 22 Goal model in GRL

23 23 An Original unbounded UCM scenario corresponding to Goal Call Services Be Supported

24 24 Bounded UCM scenarios of Solutions: Reside VoiceCoder in (1) Base Station; or (2) in Switch

25 25 Design Alternatives & Their Contributions to NFRs

26 26 Outline 1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL 2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process 3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design 4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL 5. Related works

27 27 Agent-Orientation in GRL Actors are semi-autonomous, partially knowable Strategic actors, intentional dependencies Can be considered as goal-holders Meeting Scheduling Example Strategic Dependency Model

28 28 Revealing goals, finding alternatives Asking Why, How, How else

29 29 Scheduling meeting …with meeting scheduler Consider 1.Technology as enabler 2.Networked systems and organizations 3.Increased inter-dependency and vulnerability 4.Limited knowledge and control 5.Openness and uncertainties 6.Cooperation 7.Boundaries, locality, identity

30 30 Distributed Goal Model with Meeting Scheduler SR2

31 31 Outline 1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL 2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process 3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design 4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL 5. Related works

32 32 Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering (GORE) GORE is gathering momentum CSD – Feather 87… KAOS – van Lamsweerde, … Inquiry Cycle – Potts, Anton EKD – Bubenko, Rolland, Loucopoulos Win-Win – Boehm NFR – Chung, Mylopoulos, … Hopefully, MOMENTUM >>> Z.URN proposal to ITU-T (Nov. 2000) GRL

33 33 Goal + scenario in RE and in Architectural Design Krutchens 4+1 model of software architecture Software Architecture Analysis Method (SAAM) Van Lamsweerde and Willement CREWS-LEcritoire approach of Collete Rolland et al.

34 34 Resources regarding GRL Home of GRL Tool web site References: Chung, L., Nixon, B.A., Yu, E.and Mylopoulos, J. Non-Functional Requirements in Software Engineering. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Yu, E. and Mylopoulos, J. Why Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering. In Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundations of Software Quality. June 1998, Pisa, Italy. E. Dubois, A.L. Opdahl, K. Pohl, eds. Presses Universitaires de Namur, pp Also at:


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