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Introduction, Workshop Goal, and Report on Bering Sea Operational Objectives Gordon H. Kruse University of Alaska Fairbanks School of Fisheries & Ocean.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction, Workshop Goal, and Report on Bering Sea Operational Objectives Gordon H. Kruse University of Alaska Fairbanks School of Fisheries & Ocean."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction, Workshop Goal, and Report on Bering Sea Operational Objectives Gordon H. Kruse University of Alaska Fairbanks School of Fisheries & Ocean Sciences Juneau, Alaska. U.S.A. Diana Evans North Pacific Fishery Management Council Anchorage, Alaska. U.S.A.

2 Project Objectives Report on the current understanding of ecosystem indicators in the BS/AI Report on the current understanding of ecosystem indicators in the BS/AI Evaluate pros and cons of existing indicators Evaluate pros and cons of existing indicators Identify next steps toward developing and/or validating indicators and evaluating their performance Identify next steps toward developing and/or validating indicators and evaluating their performance Describe how indicators can best be used as a tool for resource managers Describe how indicators can best be used as a tool for resource managers

3 Project Approach 1.Workshop of regional experts: Develop a set of operational objectives for the southeast Bering Sea ecosystemDevelop a set of operational objectives for the southeast Bering Sea ecosystem Address challenges of developing indicators and evaluating their utilityAddress challenges of developing indicators and evaluating their utility

4 Project Approach 2.Evaluate two ecosystem status reports: North Pacific Ecosystem Status Report (PICES) Ecosystem Considerations Chapter (NPFMC)

5 Project Components (continued) 3.Investigate whole-system methodologies for indicators of structural changes 4.Identify next steps: validating indicators performancevalidating indicators performance improving monitoring systemimproving monitoring system integration into predictive modelsintegration into predictive models

6 Large Marine Ecosystems of Alaska Focus - SE Bering Sea (center of one LME) Intent - provide insights, findings and recommendations more broadly applicable to North Pacific

7 Definitions

8 A geographically specified and adaptive process which: A geographically specified and adaptive process which: takes into account ecosystem knowledge and uncertainties,takes into account ecosystem knowledge and uncertainties, considers multiple external influences, andconsiders multiple external influences, and strives to balance diverse societal objectives.strives to balance diverse societal objectives. NOAAs Ecosystems Principles Advisory Panel (1999) Ecosystem Approach to Management

9 Benefits that people receive from ecosystems Ecosystem Services Provisioning Food, fiber, etc. Regulating Climate, disease, etc. Cultural Tourism, aesthetics, education, etc. Supporting Nutrient cycling, primary prod., etc.

10 Making EAM Operational

11 Setting Objectives High-level Policy Goals (economic, social, environmental) Broad Objective for Fishery Priority Issues (level at which management can address) Operational Objectives Indicators and Performance Measures Monitoring Review and Performance Evaluation

12 An Example High-level Policy Goal: Maintain ecosystem structure and function Maintain ecosystem structure and function Broad Objective for Fishery: Maintain predators within ecologically viable levels Maintain predators within ecologically viable levels Operational Objectives: Maintaining the spawning biomass of predators (e.g., sharks, cod, and halibut) at 35% of unfished levels while banning the harvest of forage species (e.g., capelin, eulachon, sand lance) to maintain natural fluctuations in prey abundance Maintaining the spawning biomass of predators (e.g., sharks, cod, and halibut) at 35% of unfished levels while banning the harvest of forage species (e.g., capelin, eulachon, sand lance) to maintain natural fluctuations in prey abundance Indicator and Performance Measure: Biomass estimates of predators (indicator) relative to estimates of unfished biomass (performance measure) Biomass estimates of predators (indicator) relative to estimates of unfished biomass (performance measure)

13 Indicator and Performance Measures Indicator Performance measures Reference point (limit) Reference point (target)

14 Current Ecosystem Considerations in Fisheries Management in the Eastern Bering Sea

15 BS/AI Catch Specifications Ban on forage fish fisheriesBan on forage fish fisheries Conservative catch levels for harvested speciesConservative catch levels for harvested species

16 BS/AI Groundfish Catch Specifications

17 Effort Controls License limitationsLicense limitations IFQs, CDQs, cooperativesIFQs, CDQs, cooperatives Gear Restrictions bottom trawls banned for pollockbottom trawls banned for pollock Closed Areas ~381,000 nm 2 closed to trawling to protect habitat, ~60,000 nm 2 for Steller sea lions~381,000 nm 2 closed to trawling to protect habitat, ~60,000 nm 2 for Steller sea lions Habitat Conservation

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19 Management of Bycatch and Discards Bycatch limits for prohibited species – crab, salmon, halibut, and herring Bycatch limits for prohibited species – crab, salmon, halibut, and herring Gear restrictions such as required streamer lines to avoid seabirds Gear restrictions such as required streamer lines to avoid seabirds Full retention for pollock and cod Full retention for pollock and cod

20 Need for Further EAM? No overfishing in 58 assessed stocks off Alaska (2004) No overfishing in 58 assessed stocks off Alaska (2004) 4 (crabs) of 32 assessed stocks were overfished (2004) 4 (crabs) of 32 assessed stocks were overfished (2004) Depleted not overfished? Depleted not overfished? Other historical declines: Other historical declines: Steller sea cow Steller sea cow Whales Whales Sea otters Sea otters Steller sea lion Steller sea lion Northern fur seal Northern fur seal Spectacled & Stellers eiders Spectacled & Stellers eiders

21 Goals & Objectives for the Bering Sea High-level Policy Goals Broad Objective for Fishery Priority Issues Operational Objectives Indicators and Performance Measures Monitoring Review and Performance Evaluation

22 NPFMCs Policy Statement … to apply judicious and responsible fisheries management practices, based on sound scientific research and analysis, proactively rather than reactively, to ensure the sustainability of fishery resources and associated ecosystems for the benefit of future, as well as current generations.

23 NPFMCs Broad Objectives provide sound conservation of the living marine resources; provide sound conservation of the living marine resources; provide socially and economically viable fisheries for the well-being of fishing communities; provide socially and economically viable fisheries for the well-being of fishing communities; minimize human-caused threats to protected species; minimize human-caused threats to protected species; maintain a healthy marine resource habitat; and maintain a healthy marine resource habitat; and incorporate ecosystem-based considerations into management decisions incorporate ecosystem-based considerations into management decisions

24 NPFMCs Priority Conservation Issues with Examples of Operational Objectives and Indicators Prevent overfishingPrevent overfishing Operational Objective – maintain harvest rates below those defined to be overfishing, F OFLOperational Objective – maintain harvest rates below those defined to be overfishing, F OFL Indicator – estimated annual fishing mortality, i.e.,Indicator – estimated annual fishing mortality, i.e., landings + discards + bycatch landings + discards + bycatch biomass estimate biomass estimate Indicator =

25 NPFMCs Priority Conservation Issues with Examples of Operational Objectives and Indicators Preserve food webPreserve food web Operational Objective – do not fish down the food web by maintaining trophic level within 3.3 to 3.7 (mean 3.6) over Operational Objective – do not fish down the food web by maintaining trophic level within 3.3 to 3.7 (mean 3.6) over Indicator –mean trophic level of the catchIndicator –mean trophic level of the catch

26 Landings and Trophic Level of Catch

27 NPFMCs Priority Conservation Issues with Examples of Operational Objectives and Indicators Manage incidental catch and reduce bycatch and wasteManage incidental catch and reduce bycatch and waste Operational Objective – reduce discarded bycatch by 40% from levels estimated during Operational Objective – reduce discarded bycatch by 40% from levels estimated during Indicator – estimated discards as a percentage of total groundfish catchIndicator – estimated discards as a percentage of total groundfish catch

28 Discards and Discard Rate for Groundfish

29 NPFMCs Priority Conservation Issues with Examples of Operational Objectives and Indicators Avoid impacts to seabirds and marine mammalsAvoid impacts to seabirds and marine mammals Operational Objective – reduce total seabird bycatch on longline vessels by 30% from levels during Operational Objective – reduce total seabird bycatch on longline vessels by 30% from levels during Indicator – estimated seabird bycatch based on counts on vessels with observers extrapolated to the total longline fleetIndicator – estimated seabird bycatch based on counts on vessels with observers extrapolated to the total longline fleet

30 BS/AI Longline Seabird Catch and Catch Rate

31 NPFMCs Priority Conservation Issues with Examples of Operational Objectives and Indicators Reduce and avoid impacts to habitatReduce and avoid impacts to habitat Operational Objective – reduce bottom habitat disturbance by 25% from the base period, Operational Objective – reduce bottom habitat disturbance by 25% from the base period, Indicator – annual bottom trawl effort (days fished)Indicator – annual bottom trawl effort (days fished)

32 Bering Sea Bottom Trawl Effort

33 Reflections from Previous Pre-workshops

34 Some Previous Comments Indicators may change – e.g., sea ice may become useless for the BS, but remain useful in Arctic Indicators may change – e.g., sea ice may become useless for the BS, but remain useful in Arctic We try to maintain the mean but eliminate variance. What if the variance matters most? We try to maintain the mean but eliminate variance. What if the variance matters most? Use functional groups, such as winter spawners vs. summer spawners, or different feeding guilds, etc. Use functional groups, such as winter spawners vs. summer spawners, or different feeding guilds, etc. Use species that we dont interact with directly – e.g., walrus in the BS that feed on clams. Use these for comparison to those we do affect. Use species that we dont interact with directly – e.g., walrus in the BS that feed on clams. Use these for comparison to those we do affect. Use indicators that are useful in degraded systems Use indicators that are useful in degraded systems Focus on indicators relevant to management Focus on indicators relevant to management

35 Outline of Workshop and Role of Participants

36 Alaska ecosystem considerations reportAlaska ecosystem considerations report PICES North Pacific ecosystem status reportPICES North Pacific ecosystem status report Charge to workshop: synthesis and complexityCharge to workshop: synthesis and complexity Overview of ecosystem indicators relative to guidelines and operational objectivesOverview of ecosystem indicators relative to guidelines and operational objectives Use of indicators in other regions and suggestions for the North PacificUse of indicators in other regions and suggestions for the North Pacific Status of the eastern Bering SeaStatus of the eastern Bering Sea Report on change detection algorithmsReport on change detection algorithms Day 1

37 Day 2 Comments on two ecosystem reportsComments on two ecosystem reports Breakout groups: discuss objectives and use of indicators in the North PacificBreakout groups: discuss objectives and use of indicators in the North Pacific Group reportsGroup reports Topic breakout groups:Topic breakout groups: Matching indicators to objectivesMatching indicators to objectives Methods to monitor ecosystem structural changeMethods to monitor ecosystem structural change Monitoring networks: validating indicatorsMonitoring networks: validating indicators Communicating resultsCommunicating results Day 3 North Pacific Research Board perspectiveNorth Pacific Research Board perspective Review and discuss contributed indicator listReview and discuss contributed indicator list

38 Contributions toward operational objectives and ecosystem indicatorsContributions toward operational objectives and ecosystem indicators Maintain biomass levels or maintain natural variability?Maintain biomass levels or maintain natural variability? Are directional actions more appropriate – e.g., reduce mortality, etc.Are directional actions more appropriate – e.g., reduce mortality, etc. What indicators are most appropriate for identified operational objectives?What indicators are most appropriate for identified operational objectives? Best ways to monitor structural changeBest ways to monitor structural change Multivariate statistical analysisMultivariate statistical analysis Ecological approaches - e.g., based functional groups of speciesEcological approaches - e.g., based functional groups of species Monitor changes in ecological processes or ratesMonitor changes in ecological processes or rates Role of Participants

39 Feedback on synthesis and complexityFeedback on synthesis and complexity Possible to render long lists of indicators into most meaningful ones?Possible to render long lists of indicators into most meaningful ones? Data gaps and monitoring networksData gaps and monitoring networks What variables or indicators are missing?What variables or indicators are missing? Ways to involve fishermen and others?Ways to involve fishermen and others? How to communicate resultsHow to communicate results How to involve stakeholders?How to involve stakeholders? How to incorporate social and economic considerations?How to incorporate social and economic considerations? Lessons from other regions?Lessons from other regions? Role of Participants


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