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JOB ANALYSIS and HR PLANNING ________________________ Dr

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1 JOB ANALYSIS and HR PLANNING ________________________ Dr
JOB ANALYSIS and HR PLANNING ________________________ Dr. Teal McAteer-Early Michael G. DeGroote School of Business McMaster University Week 2

2 What is a job? Job Tasks Group of related activities and duties
Made up of tasks Tasks Basic elements of jobs “what gets done”

3 What is Job Analysis? Job analysis (JA) systematically collects, evaluates, and organizes information about jobs JA identifies behaviours, knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are critical to a job

4 What is the purpose of JA?
JA lays the foundation for HRM systems: Selection Selection system developed to assess key KSAs Ensures that it is job-related Training Gaps in KSAs of new hires represent training needs Performance Appraisal Job analysis establishes performance standards

5 What is the purpose of JA?
Compensation Relative worth of jobs measured via job evaluation JA helps you to select the right ee, evaluate the ee fairly, compensate, and train the appropriate skills to the appropriate ees JA also ensures your system is legally defensible and perceived as fair (procedural justice)

6 Steps in Job Analysis Process
Phase 1: Preparation for job analysis Familiarization with the organization and its jobs Determine the uses of the JA information (selection, training?) Identify what jobs need to be analyzed Critical to success of the organization Difficult to learn New technology

7 Steps in Job Analysis Process
Phase 2: Collection of JA information Source of Job Data Job incumbents, supervisors, subordinates, customers Existing job descriptions Manuals, publications National Occupational Classification

8 Steps in Job Analysis Process
Phase 2: Collection of JA information Data collection instrument design Gather information systematically Often involves questionnaire, checklist Use same questionnaire for similar jobs Different jobs may require different instrument Information gathered: Status, key duties/tasks, KSAs, working conditions, performance standards

9 Steps in Job Analysis Process
Phase 2: Collection of JA information Data collection method Face-to-face interviews Questionnaires Employee log/diary Observation Combination of above No “best” approach Trade-offs re: accuracy, time, and cost

10 Existing JA Methods Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
Functional Job Analysis (FJA) Critical Incident Technique (CIT)

11 Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
McCormick (1972) Developed because of criticism that JA relied on observation – not quantifiable Detailed questionnaire (194 tasks) Determines extent to which each task is applicable to target job Using a 5-point scale

12 Functional Job Analysis (FJA)
Fine & Wiley (1971) Focuses on task statements Task statements include: What? - What gets done (the action/behaviour) To whom or what? - The object of the action Why? - Purpose of the action How? - What facilitates the action?

13 Functional Job Analysis
Tasks are rated on scales reflecting varying degrees of involvement with Things, Data, and People as well as math, language, etc. requirements Each scale is arranged hierarchically E.g., People scale ranges from “taking instructions” to “leadership”

14 Critical Incident Technique
Flanagan (1949) Identifies behaviours that indicate success or failure on the job Effective vs ineffective behaviours Critical Incidents include: Context - in which the incident occurred Behaviour - exactly what the individual did that was effective or ineffective Consequences - of the behaviour and whether or not consequences were in the employee’s control

15 Developing Critical Incidents
Interview with people familiar with the job E.g., supervisors, subordinates, customers Ask them to describe specific incidents of effective / ineffective behaviour by incumbents of target job Incident context – What led up to the incident (background)? What was the situation? Behaviour – What exactly did the person do that was effective / ineffective? Consequence - What was the outcome of the behaviour?

16 Using Critical Incidents
Critical incidents are collected Critical incidents that are similar in context are grouped into a behavioural item 2 critical incidents Rewarding employees for good performance Publicly praising for good performance Could be grouped into a behavioural item “Praise/reward subordinates for effective performance”

17 Using Critical Incidents
Similar behavioural items are grouped into a meaningful behavioural criterion 2 behavioural items “Praise/reward employees…” “Counselling, giving advice to subordinates” Combine to form the behavioural criterion “Interactions with subordinates” These form basis of selection system (e.g., interview), performance appraisal instrument, etc.

18 Steps in Job Analysis Process
Phase 3: Uses of JA information Job descriptions—Task requirements Statement that explains duties working conditions, etc. of a job Job specifications—Person requirements Statement of what a job demands of the incumbent E.g., knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAs) and other characteristics required to perform job

19 Steps in Job Analysis Process
Phase 3: Uses of JA information Performance standards What is expected of workers JA may provide performance standards for job where performance is readily quantified, measurable, etc. May need to be augmented – e.g., participative goal-setting All of these uses form foundation for various HRM systems

20 In-Class Exercise In groups, develop critical incidents for university instructors Generate at least: 3 incidents of effective behaviour and 3 incidents of ineffective behaviour

21 Critical Incident Technique
Think about instructors you have had over the last 12 months: Without telling me the name, think of someone who has been (in)effective in the role of instructor. Think of a specific incident that you saw occur that made you think they were (in)effective What were the circumstances surrounding the incident? What was the situation? What exactly did they do that was (in)effective? Make sure you are describing observable behaviour What were the consequences of the behaviour? Were the consequences due to the person’s behaviour?

22 Human Resource Planning
HR Planning systematically forecasts an organization’s future demand for and supply of employees and matches supply with demand. Involves -Forecasting demand -Forecasting supply -Addressing labour shortages and surpluses

23 HR Demand and Supply Forecasting Demand External Organizational
Socio-political Competition Organizational Organizational strategy Sales forecast Workforce Retirements, resignations, terminations Forecasting Supply External; Labour market analysis Demographics Internal HR audit/Current employees KSAs Succession planning replacement charts

24 Strategic Issues re: HR Planning
Must know organization’s short and long- term goals Different organizational strategies require different human resource plans Human resource planning facilitates proactive response to environmental and legal challenges

25 Strategic Issues re: HR Planning
4. An organization’s tactical plans must be aligned with HR plans 5. Alignment between organizational and HR plans provides basis for timely and effective recruitment and selection.

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