Presentation on theme: "JOB ANALYSIS and HR PLANNING ________________________ Dr"— Presentation transcript:
1 JOB ANALYSIS and HR PLANNING ________________________ Dr JOB ANALYSIS and HR PLANNING ________________________ Dr. Teal McAteer-Early Michael G. DeGroote School of Business McMaster University Week 2
2 What is a job? Job Tasks Group of related activities and duties Made up of tasksTasksBasic elements of jobs“what gets done”
3 What is Job Analysis?Job analysis (JA) systematically collects, evaluates, and organizes information about jobsJA identifies behaviours, knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are critical to a job
4 What is the purpose of JA? JA lays the foundation for HRM systems:SelectionSelection system developed to assess key KSAsEnsures that it is job-relatedTrainingGaps in KSAs of new hires represent training needsPerformance AppraisalJob analysis establishes performance standards
5 What is the purpose of JA? CompensationRelative worth of jobs measured via job evaluationJA helps you to select the right ee, evaluate the ee fairly, compensate, and train the appropriate skills to the appropriate eesJA also ensures your system is legally defensible and perceived as fair (procedural justice)
6 Steps in Job Analysis Process Phase 1: Preparation for job analysisFamiliarization with the organization and its jobsDetermine the uses of the JA information (selection, training?)Identify what jobs need to be analyzedCritical to success of the organizationDifficult to learnNew technology
7 Steps in Job Analysis Process Phase 2: Collection of JA informationSource of Job DataJob incumbents, supervisors, subordinates, customersExisting job descriptionsManuals, publicationsNational Occupational Classification
8 Steps in Job Analysis Process Phase 2: Collection of JA informationData collection instrument designGather information systematicallyOften involves questionnaire, checklistUse same questionnaire for similar jobsDifferent jobs may require different instrumentInformation gathered:Status, key duties/tasks, KSAs, working conditions, performance standards
9 Steps in Job Analysis Process Phase 2: Collection of JA informationData collection methodFace-to-face interviewsQuestionnairesEmployee log/diaryObservationCombination of aboveNo “best” approachTrade-offs re: accuracy, time, and cost
10 Existing JA Methods Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Functional Job Analysis (FJA)Critical Incident Technique (CIT)
11 Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) McCormick (1972)Developed because of criticism that JA relied on observation – not quantifiableDetailed questionnaire (194 tasks)Determines extent to which each task is applicable to target jobUsing a 5-point scale
12 Functional Job Analysis (FJA) Fine & Wiley (1971)Focuses on task statementsTask statements include:What? - What gets done (the action/behaviour)To whom or what? - The object of the actionWhy? - Purpose of the actionHow? - What facilitates the action?
13 Functional Job Analysis Tasks are rated on scales reflecting varying degrees of involvement with Things, Data, and People as well as math, language, etc. requirementsEach scale is arranged hierarchicallyE.g., People scale ranges from “taking instructions” to “leadership”
14 Critical Incident Technique Flanagan (1949)Identifies behaviours that indicate success or failure on the jobEffective vs ineffective behavioursCritical Incidents include:Context - in which the incident occurredBehaviour - exactly what the individual did that was effective or ineffectiveConsequences - of the behaviour and whether or not consequences were in the employee’s control
15 Developing Critical Incidents Interview with people familiar with the jobE.g., supervisors, subordinates, customersAsk them to describe specific incidents of effective / ineffective behaviour by incumbents of target jobIncident context – What led up to the incident (background)? What was the situation?Behaviour – What exactly did the person do that was effective / ineffective?Consequence - What was the outcome of the behaviour?
16 Using Critical Incidents Critical incidents are collectedCritical incidents that are similar in context are grouped into a behavioural item2 critical incidentsRewarding employees for good performancePublicly praising for good performanceCould be grouped into a behavioural item “Praise/reward subordinates for effective performance”
17 Using Critical Incidents Similar behavioural items are grouped into a meaningful behavioural criterion2 behavioural items“Praise/reward employees…”“Counselling, giving advice to subordinates”Combine to form the behavioural criterion “Interactions with subordinates”These form basis of selection system (e.g., interview), performance appraisal instrument, etc.
18 Steps in Job Analysis Process Phase 3: Uses of JA informationJob descriptions—Task requirementsStatement that explains duties working conditions, etc. of a jobJob specifications—Person requirementsStatement of what a job demands of the incumbentE.g., knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAs) and other characteristics required to perform job
19 Steps in Job Analysis Process Phase 3: Uses of JA informationPerformance standardsWhat is expected of workersJA may provide performance standards for job where performance is readily quantified, measurable, etc.May need to be augmented – e.g., participative goal-settingAll of these uses form foundation for various HRM systems
20 In-Class ExerciseIn groups, develop critical incidents for university instructorsGenerate at least:3 incidents of effective behaviour and3 incidents of ineffective behaviour
21 Critical Incident Technique Think about instructors you have had over the last 12 months:Without telling me the name, think of someone who has been (in)effective in the role of instructor.Think of a specific incident that you saw occur that made you think they were (in)effectiveWhat were the circumstances surrounding the incident? What was the situation?What exactly did they do that was (in)effective?Make sure you are describing observable behaviourWhat were the consequences of the behaviour? Were the consequences due to the person’s behaviour?
22 Human Resource Planning HR Planning systematically forecasts an organization’s future demand for and supply of employees and matches supply with demand.Involves-Forecasting demand-Forecasting supply-Addressing labour shortages and surpluses
24 Strategic Issues re: HR Planning Must know organization’s short and long- term goalsDifferent organizational strategies require different human resource plansHuman resource planning facilitates proactive response to environmental and legal challenges
25 Strategic Issues re: HR Planning 4. An organization’s tactical plans must be aligned with HR plans5. Alignment between organizational and HR plans provides basis for timely and effective recruitment and selection.