Atlantic Ocean Influence Direct influence - Sub-tropical high pressure belt and associated wave- trains -cold upwelling (west coasts of S Africa, Namibia, Angola, DRC) -westerly waves (S Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe)
Summary: The Atlantic Ocean Correlations between Atlantic Ocean SSTs and area- averaged rainfall in Southern Africa have been relatively weak for operational usage (e.g., Walker, Pathack, Landman, Rocha, Mason, Makarau, Zhakata) Central Atlantic SST are however positively correlated with early summer rainfall over western South Africa, Namibia, Angola and DRC
Summary: The Indian Ocean Negative correlations (up to –0.6) exist between area- averaged rainfall in southern Africa and central equatorial Indian Ocean SSTs (Makarau, Rocha, Jury, Pathack, Mason, Zhakata, Landman). The window comprising the equator-10°S and 60-70 ° E offers useful forecast guidance at 3-6 months prior to austral summer. At –9 months, rainfall is positively correlated with SSTs in the South Indian Ocean (r=+0.42 near 35 ° S, 65 ° E)
Summary: The Indian Ocean Central Equatorial Indian Ocean is the source of moisture and energy variability over northeastern southern Africa (Islands, Tanzania, DRC, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, northeastern South Africa and Swaziland) modulating the ITCZ, monsoons, low-level jet and related easterly waves and tropical cyclones
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