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Thermo-Chemical Processes for Biomass Conversion (TCP) Marten Grau University of Halle (Germany)

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Presentation on theme: "Thermo-Chemical Processes for Biomass Conversion (TCP) Marten Grau University of Halle (Germany)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Thermo-Chemical Processes for Biomass Conversion (TCP) Marten Grau University of Halle (Germany)

2 2 Raw Materials from Agriculture and Forestry primary raw materials (straw, wood, …) secondary raw materials (manure, digestates, …) nearly every kind of biomass contains a potential for energy production and/or material use

3 3 Differences between Organic Materials different composition and concentration of ingredients wide spectrum of physical and chemical characteristics process flows have to adapt

4 4 Examples 1.Biogas production from maize 2.Synthesis gas production from wood

5 5 Planting Requirements maize annual plant intensive arable crop (fertilization, crop protection, …) wood (fast growing trees) perennial plant, long-term plantation extensive crop management

6 6 Harvest maize and wood (willow, poplar) harvest with self propelled forage harvesters both process chains similar result: chaff and wood chips

7 7 Biological Gas Generation fermentation of maize silage result: methane-rich gas (̴ 60% CH 4 ) Exergy flow: Source: K.Purr

8 8 Biogas: Pros and Cons + well known technology + almost closed nutrient cycle ̵ closed phyto-pathogenic cycles (fusarium spp., clostridium spp.) risk reduction through disinfection ̵ risk of soil contamination with inorganic pollutants (heavy metals)

9 9 Thermo-Chemical Gas Generation thermo-chemical conversion of dry wood result: synthesis gas, pyrolysis oil, pyrolysis charcoal Exergy flow: Source: K.Purr

10 10 TCP: Pros and Cons + wide range of input materials + higher rate of conversion + higher exergy output + separation of pollutants (organic + inorganic) ̵ open nutrient cycle (ash deposits P+K loss) ̵ complex technology ̵ breakthrough in biomass gasification still missing

11 11 Specifications of TCPs decomposition of organic compounds by heat trace elements in biomass influence on process management depending on reactor design varying gasification products and quality thereof further use of products requires adapted technology

12 12 Fixed bed Fluidized bed Entrained bed Own development AHTparallel flowcirculating multi-stage process FÖST e.V. Leuna, Germany Kuntschar, Germany UMSICHT, Oberhausen, Germany Biomass power plant Güssing, Austria CHOREN, Freiberg, Germany University of Halle, Germany Planned power rating 100 kW660 kW1 MW8 MW1 MW200 kW Gasification medium air steamair Cold gas efficiency 51,4 %69,7 %56,2 %63,8 %80,7 %74,5 % Gasification Technologies Source: K.Purr

13 13 Integration of TCPs in Agricultural Value Chains highest value added for producers requires short pathways between producer and consumer decentralized solutions for heat and electricity generation can achieve that but: often small plants higher specific costs use of secondary effects can increase benefits

14 14 Secondary Effects, Dual-Use use of non-conventional raw materials (solid manure, contaminated wood, …) fertilizer production by gasification of sludge …

15 15 Example 1: Polluted Raw Material wood coming from phytoremediation processes (removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants by plants) contaminated soils risk for farmers: loss of production area risk for consumers: pollutants in food or forage

16 16 Example 1: Polluted Raw Material using TCPs pollutants can be separated from TCP-products generating a clean gas, ready for combustion in gas engines after-treatment of residues (ash, eluates) recycling of nutrients possible (macro and micro, current state: expensive)

17 17 Example 1: Polluted Raw Material current own project: Phytoremediation of contaminated floodplain soils in the Volga River catchment safe conversion of contaminated material in a 200kW TCP reactor was successful

18 18 Example 2: Gasification of Sludge closing nutrient cycles (P,K) process has been established (Ash Dec) production of granulated fertilizer conc. of pollutants < mineral fertilizer enhances sustainability

19 19 Take-Home-Message TCPs are ready for many raw materials from agriculture, forestry and municipalities decentralized plants for generating poor gas can be managed by farmers TCPs can be part of closed nutrient cycles

20 20 Thank You for Your Attention!

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