Presentation on theme: "Overview of Alaska Ecosystem Indicators Relative to EAM/EAF Objectives"— Presentation transcript:
1 Overview of Alaska Ecosystem Indicators Relative to EAM/EAF Objectives Andrea Belgrano2, Jennifer Boldt2, Patricia Livingston1, Jeffrey Napp11Alaska Fisheries Science Center Seattle, WA, USA2JISAO, University of Washington, Seattle, WA USA
2 Alaska Objectives for Ecosystem Protection: Maintain predator-prey relationshipspelagic forage availabilityspatial/temporal conc. of fishery impact on forage fishremovals of top predatorsintroduction of non-native speciesMaintain diversityspecies diversityfunctional (trophic, structural habitat) diversitygenetic diversityMaintain energy flow and balancehuman-induced energy redirectionsystem impacts attributable to energy removalCLIMATE and FISHINGIn past and future Ecosystem Assessments we hope to address thethree main objectives for Ecosystem protection:Maintain predator-prey relationshipsMaintain diversityMaintain energy flow and balance.We can address these objectives by examining several topics that relate to each of them.For example, to maintain predator-prey relationships, we can examine:pelagic forage availability,spatial/temporal conc. of fishery impact on forage fish,removals of top predators and the,introduction of non-native species.To maintain diversity we can examine indicators that pertain to: species diversityfunctional (trophic, structural habitat) diversitygenetic diversityTo maintain energy flow and balance in an ecosystem, we can look at information that pertains tohuman-induced energy redirectionsystem impacts attributable to energy removalWe also need to consider the effects of climate and fishing on these.
3 What is the definition of an ecosystem approach to management? NOAA defines an ecosystem approach to management as one that is:AdaptiveRegionally directedTakes account of ecosystem knowledgeTakes account of uncertaintyConsiders multiple external influencesStrives to balance diverse societal objectives
4 National Level Guidance: NOAA EPAP NOAA’s Ecosystem Principles Advisory PanelAbility to predict ecosystem behavior is limitedEcosystems have real thresholds and limitsChange may be irreversible once limits are exceededMultiple scales interact within and among ecosystemsComponents of ecosystems are linkedEcosystem boundaries are openEcosystems change with time
5 Regional Management Objectives: NPFMC North Pacific Fishery Management Council EAF objectives after programmatic environmental impacts of groundfish fishery management plans:Prevent overfishingPromote sustainable fisheries and communitiesPreserve food webManage incidental catch and reduce bycatch and wasteAvoid impacts to seabirds and marine mammalsReduce and avoid impacts to habitatPromote equitable and efficient use of fishery resourcesIncrease Alaska Native consultationImprove data quality, monitoring and enforcement
6 Regional Management Objectives: PSMFC Pacific States Marine Fish Commission review of EAF objectives:Employ spatial representationRecognize significance of climate/ocean conditionsEmphasize food web interactionsEnsure broad societal goals are taken into accountUtilize and expand scope of monitoringAcknowledge and respond to higher levels of uncertaintyPursue ecosystem modeling/researchSeek improved habitat information
7 FAO COMPASS NOAA EAM PSMFC EPAP NPFMC AK Eco Cons. Section Limit ecosystem impactsProtect ecosystem structure, functioning, and key processes,Takes ecosystem knowledge into account,Broad scope of monitoring, pursue ecosystem modeling researchEcosystems have real thresholds and limitsPrevent overfishing, manage incidental catch and reduce bycatch, waste, avoid seabird and marine mammal impacts, avoid habitat impactsMaintain energy flow and balanceMaintain ecological relationships between speciesAccount for species interactionsTakes ecosystem knowledge into accountEmphasize food web interactionsDiversity is important, components are linkedPreserve food webMaintain predator prey relationshipsManagement measures compatible across entire resource distributionPlace-basedRegionally directedEmploy spatial representationMultiple scales interact among and within ecosystems, boundaries are open(regional measures)(divided into regions)
8 FAO COMPASS NOAA EAM PSMFC EPAP NPFMC AK Eco Cons. Section Precaution in decisions due to ecosystem uncertaintyIncremental, adaptiveAcknowledge high levels of uncertaintyPrediction of ecosystem behavior is ltd., change may be irreversible, ecosystems change with timeImprove data quality, monitoring, and enforcementMaintain diversityGovernance ensures both human and ecosystem well-being and equityIntegrates ecological, social, economic perspectivesBalances diverse societal objectives, collaborativeAccount for broad societal goalsPromote sustainable fisheries and communities, equitable use, Native consultationUnderstand human impactsInterconnectedness among air, land, seaMultiple, external influencesRecognize climate/ocean conditionsIncorporate climate into analyses
9 Common Objectives WHAT Protect ecosystem structure and function (including diversity and habitat)Protect key ecosystem processesAccount for food web interactionsHOWManage regionallyIncorporate precaution into decisionsIntegrate broad societal goalsAcknowledge multiple, external influences, including climate
10 Alaska Ecosystem Considerations Section. Groundfish FMP Goals Comparison of Alaska Groundfish FMP Goals to indicators inAlaska Ecosystem Considerations Section.Groundfish FMP GoalsEcosystem Considerations IndicesPrevent overfishingStatus of stocks, annual surplus productivityPromote sustainable fisheries and communitiesFishing overcapacity programsPreserve food webMany indices of pelagic forage availability, spatial/temporal conc. of fishery impact on forage fish, removals of top predators, introduction of non-native speciesManage incidental catch and reduce bycatch and wasteProhibited species, discards, bycatchAvoid impacts to seabirds and marine mammals productivity, and chronology trendsSeabird and mammal incidental take, population abundance,Reduce and avoid impacts to habitatEFH research, effects of fishing gear on habitat researchPromote equitable and efficient use of fishery resourcesFishing overcapacity programs, groundfish fleet compositionIncrease Alaska native consultationAlaska Native Traditional Environmental Knowledge of climateregimesImprove data quality, monitoring and enforcement
11 Possible Enhancements to Indicators Improved system level indicators for Predator/prey relationships:Body-sizePredator/prey mass ration (PPMR)Trophic efficiencyTrophic level
12 Possible Enhancements to Indicators Improved system level indicators for DiversitySpecies body-sizeBeta diversitySpecies richnessSpecies rank
13 Possible Enhancements to Indicators Improved system level indicators for Energy flow/balance:Trophic efficiencyTrophic levelTotal system throughputPrimary production
14 Further Considerations Restructure Ecosystem Assessment ObjectivesEstablish and maintain system level indicators to relate to chosen objectivesEvaluate strategies/timing of communicating assessment results
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