Presentation on theme: "CHALLENGES OF REFORMING NATIONAL VETERINARY LEGISLATION: EXPERIENCE OF UGANDA Dr Kauta Nicholas Chief veterinary officer Uganda 1 st international conference."— Presentation transcript:
CHALLENGES OF REFORMING NATIONAL VETERINARY LEGISLATION: EXPERIENCE OF UGANDA Dr Kauta Nicholas Chief veterinary officer Uganda 1 st international conference on veterinary legislation 7 th -9 th Dec 2010 Djerba -Tunisia
Presentation plan Introduction Drivers of legislative reform Limitations to effective reforms. Conclusions
Introduction First veterinary legislation was introduced in 1918 – the Animal diseases Act Major improvements in 1964 (six more Acts) Since 1964 changes have mainly been amendments of existing laws. Explicit Food safety legislation was introduced in 1964 and is taken care of by different ministries
Present status Production system dominated by subsistence production (over 80%). Only hides and skins are exported. Diverse and regional differences in use of animal resources. Weak law reform capacity Small national budgets Many competing enterprises Limited infrastructure for value addition to animal products.
Present status contd Veterinary services have until recently targeted Improved animal production (through better health) – food security. Public health (zoonosis) And not International trade (requiring more commercial than subsistence production) Low human development index
Current status Success stories fish export to EU Export of crop products eg coffee, tea to EU (eurepGap) Access to EU for honey Planned programmes Preparation to access EU and other markets with beef
Future prospects High potential for participation in global trade in animal products A lot of work needs to be done to realize this.
Socio- economic- political issues Fundamental difference Developed countries – internal markets: internal consumer demands Developing countries - external markets: external consumer demands Food value of animals is only a small part of the total value of the animals in many communities (traction and media of exchange of values dominates).
Socio-economic- political contd Cost benefit analysis is often biased towards animal product value e.g meat and milk Yet the benefits are analyzed from different perspectives by different communities. Who is perceived to benefit? Why are we considering export of meat when we do not have enough for ourselves?
Political considerations Difficulties in pushing through contentious laws which create precedents. e.g compensation policy is shunned – why veterinary diseases? What about others?
Commercialized production vs subsistence production Food safety – historically was a response to an increasing number of people who depended more on marketed food than domestically prepared food. 80% of animals kept on low input – low output production systems serving subsistence needs. This weakens our augment and competitiveness because a small amount of the food goes through the food safety web.
Constrained financial resources and resultant competition Budgets are fixed over a long period of time with limited flexibility Short term (1 to 2 yrs), medium term (3-5 yrs) and long term (6 -15 yrs) Budgetary ceiling mean competitions for limited resources with resources being reallocated as different stakeholders argue cases out.
Investments challenges Investments to meet the demands of new laws. In the face of small budgets investments are slow and protracted. Yet governments are aiming for quick returns to investment. Loss of interest in the face of other competing values. Under the circumstances the private sector must fill in the gap
Competition In the wake of competitions, benefits from implementation of veterinary legislation are subject to deliberate misinterpretation and deliberate misrepresentation. These tools are often used in competitions for resource allocation.
Major challenge Use of other institutions to drive our agenda has proved difficult (bureaucracy).
The role of Ministry of Finance In Policy formulation the Ministry of Finance is the clearing house for policy proposals to Cabinet. Is a filter. Technical in the cost - benefit analysis Lack of professional representation at critical stages in the process which opens the way for misrepresentation due to lack of adequate background information or biases.
Harmonization with other legislation harmonization of veterinary legislation with other legislation is a demanding process. We are locked in a battle as to which ministry should take the lead on food safety in the face of farm to fork approach
OIE support PVS (Performance, Vision & Strategy) tool – 2007 Veterinary legislation – mission received in Uganda 2010. In principle we are due to sign MoU with OIE. Process going through our legal departments. Thank OIE for this support.
Conclusions Veterinary legislation needs to be updated in Uganda. However the process is manned at different stages by persons with little supportive information and this must be addressed Legal advisory units should be established under the veterinary authority on fulltime basis. The resources needed to review veterinary legislation may not be enough under public expenditure. Support is required from other sources including private sectors. Zoning of production must be considered.