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Capacity building to support strengthening of veterinary legislation

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1 Capacity building to support strengthening of veterinary legislation
The Importance of Strengthening the Private Veterinary Sector and the National Veterinary Statutory Bodies (VSB). Capacity building to support strengthening of veterinary legislation Dr Herbert SCHNEIDER AGRIVET International Namibia Chairman : OIE ad hoc Group on Veterinary Services

2 OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Legislation
STRENGTHENING THE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR Public – Private Veterinary Partnerships There is an urgent need to forge closer relationships and establish linkages between the official and private veterinary sectors in order to effectively and rapidly respond to animal disease and zoonoses outbreaks. OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Legislation

3 OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Legislation
STRENGTHENING THE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR Public – Private Veterinary Partnerships Such partnerships, as well as an increased role for veterinary paraprofessionals (VPP’s) in surveillance, early disease detection and monitoring and rapid response actions calls for capacity building at all levels, to meet the demands posed. OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Legislation

4 OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Legislation
STRENGTHENING THE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR Global Public Good Animal health and veterinary services, being a global good, require global initiatives and collective international action to be able to implement global animal disease (including zoonoses) eradication. OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Legislation

5 OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Legislation
STRENGTHENING THE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR One World – One Health Strategy The application of the “One World – One Health” strategy at the animal-human interface will strengthen veterinary capacity to meet this challenge. Today’s public demands pertain specifically to societal needs such as food safety and public health; combating emerging or re-emerging diseases, especially zoonoses with the necessary disease surveillance and management of risks; food security and animal production to address the ever increasing states of human malnutrition and poverty; safeguarding biodiversity and addressing environmental management and sustainability; and bio-security and meeting threats of bio-terrorism OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Legislation

6 STRENGTHENING THE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR - DEFINITIONS
TAHC Definitions STRENGTHENING THE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR - DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS Veterinary Services “means the governmental and non-governmental organisations that implement animal health and welfare measures and other standards and recommendations in the Terrestrial Code and the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code in the territory. The Veterinary Services are under the overall control and direction of the Veterinary Authority. Private sector organisations, veterinarians, veterinary paraprofessionals or aquatic animal health professionals are normally accredited or approved by the Veterinary Authority to deliver the delegated functions. TAHC Definitions

7 TAHC Definitions DEFINITIONS
STRENGTHENING THE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR - DEFINITIONS STRENGTHENING THE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR DEFINITIONS Veterinary Authority “means the Governmental Authority of an OIE Member, comprising veterinarians, other professionals and para-professionals, having the responsibility and competence for ensuring or supervising the implementation of animal health and welfare measures, international veterinary certification and other standards and recommendations in the Terrestrial Code in the whole territory. TAHC Definitions

8 Standards on the Quality of VS
TAHC STANDARDS ON THE QUALITY OF VETERINARY SERVICES (VS) The quality of the Veterinary Services depends on a set of factors, which include fundamental principles of an ethical, organisational, legislative, regulatory and technical nature. The Veterinary Services shall conform to these fundamental principles, regardless of the political, economic or social situation of their country. Compliance with these fundamental principles by the VS of an OIE Member is important to the establishment and maintenance of confidence in its international veterinary certificates by the VS of other OIE Members Standards on the Quality of VS

9 The Veterinary Public – Private Linkages
The Veterinary Public – Private Partnership Animal Disease - Zoonosis Public Veterinary Sector Livestock Owner - Farmer - Producer Private Veterinary Sector The Veterinary Public – Private Linkages

10 Private Veterinary Sector
STRENGTHENING THE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR Veterinary Organizations / Associations To successfully address and meet these challenges it is important that veterinary associations / organizations are established to organize veterinary professionals, being in public and private service, in a country in a representative and consultative forum. This also applies to veterinary paraprofessionals Private Veterinary Sector

11 Private Veterinary Sector
STRENGTHENING THE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR Veterinary Organizations / Associations Main responsibilities focus on the formal representation of veterinary profession in consultations and discussions; the entering into formal recognition agreements; supporting and promoting public-private veterinary partnerships; the quality performance of veterinary professional services rendered; and the provision of facilities/platforms for continuous professional development (CPD). Such professional organizations/associations should operate within a legally defined constitutional framework, based on e. g. democratic and transparent administrative procedures, including non-discriminatory membership provisions and financial accountability. Private Veterinary Sector

12 Private Veterinary Sector
STRENGTHENING THE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR Veterinary Organizations / Associations In this context it is also considered important that VS build formal links with individual private veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals. Such links could take the form of legal contracts for the provision of specific services such as disease monitoring and surveillance, animal vaccination, food inspection and disease prevention and control. Such service contracts should be within a common law framework, depending on the legal system of the country in question. An example of such formal linkage with private veterinarians is the “Sanitary Mandate” in France. Private Veterinary Sector

13 Private Veterinary Sector
CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES BYTHE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR The core elements of Good Veterinary Governance are intimately linked to the universal acceptance of a veterinary profession (and not an occupation) since the introduction of formal veterinary education in 1761 (Lyon, France). The definition of “profession” is thus the most elementary legal concept pertaining to the veterinary profession. Private Veterinary Sector

14 Private Veterinary Sector
CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES BYTHE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR “Australian Code of Professional Conduct” A profession is: "A profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to high ethical standards and uphold themselves to, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recognised body of learning derived from research, education and training at a high level, and who are prepared to exercise this knowledge and these skills in the interest of others. It is inherent in the definition of a profession that a code of ethics governs the activities of each profession. Such codes require behaviours and practice beyond the personal moral obligations of an individual. They define and demand high standards of behaviour in respect to the services provided to the public and in dealing with professional colleagues. Further, these codes are enforced by the profession and are acknowledged and accepted by the community.” Private Veterinary Sector

15 Private Veterinary Sector
CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES BYTHE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR “Code of Good Veterinary Practice” (GVP) In order to address the demands for quality of veterinarians in the private sector, veterinary professional organisations have taken the lead to formulate protocols and guidelines for quality management systems for veterinary practices and clinics, based on a Code of Good Veterinary Practice (GVP). Private Veterinary Sector

16 Private Veterinary Sector
CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES BYTHE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR “Code of Good Veterinary Practice” (GVP) Quality management systems are modern instruments of the free-market system, reflecting the clients/consumers needs for transparency and confidence regarding the services provided meeting high levels of ethical behaviour and professional competence. However the concept is not new at all, as the latter was already addressed circa years ago by King Hammurabi of Babylon when he degreed under text 225 of the Code of Hammurabi “ if (the veterinary surgeon) performs a serious operation on an ass or ox, and kill it, he shall pay the owner one-fourth of Its value”. Private Veterinary Sector

17 Private Veterinary Sector
CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES BYTHE PRIVATE VETERINARY SECTOR “Code of Good Veterinary Practice” (GVP) Such Codes of GVP have been introduced, during the start- up phases mostly on a voluntary basis, becoming compulsory at a later stage, by national veterinary organizations (e. g. the New Zealand Veterinary Council – Code of Professional Conduct for Veterinarians) or have been formulated on a regional level (e. g. by the Federation of Veterinarians in Europe - FVE European Veterinary Code of Conduct). Such Codes of GVP have substantially contributed to GVG in the private veterinary sector. Private Veterinary Sector

18 The TAHC Chapter 3.1. – Veterinary Services
The Quality of Veterinary Services (VS) and thus Good Veterinary Governance (GVG) depend on OIE International Standards which are available as and contained in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (TAHC). available at en_sommaire.htm OIE TAHC Standards Chapter 3.1. – Veterinary Services Chapter Evaluation of Veterinary Services

19 TAHC Definitions The TAHC
The most important single issue in dealing with any of the previous mentioned activities relating to the Quality of the VS in compliance with the TAHC, is to define a veterinarian and a veterinary para- professional (VPP) Definitions

20 TAHC Definitions The TAHC
Veterinarian means a person registered or licensed by the relevant veterinary statutory body of a country to practice veterinary medicine/science in that country. Definitions

21 TAHC Definitions The TAHC
Veterinary para-professional (VPP) means a person who, for the purposes of the Terrestrial Code, is authorised by the veterinary statutory body to carry out certain designated tasks (dependent upon the category of veterinary para-professional) in a territory, and delegated to them under the responsibility and direction of a veterinarian. The tasks for each category of veterinary para-professional should be defined by the veterinary statutory body depending on qualifications and training, and according to need. Definitions

22 TAHC Definitions The TAHC
Veterinary para-professional (VPP) The use of the term “para-veterinarian” or “para-vet” should be avoided and the term VPP be used instead, as “para-vet” has a negative connotation such as “pseudo-vet”; “quasi-vet” or “barefoot vet”. Examples of veterinary para-professionals would include veterinary nurses, veterinary technicians, community-based animal health workers, food inspectors, animal health technicians, livestock inspectors etc.. Definitions

23 TAHC Definitions The TAHC
Official veterinarians defined in the OIE Code as “means a veterinarian authorised by the Veterinary Authority of the country to perform certain designated official tasks associated with animal health and/or public health and inspections of commodities and, when appropriate, to certify in conformity with the provisions of Chapters 5.1. and 5.2. of the Terrestrial Code.” Definitions

24 TAHC Definitions The VSB
Veterinary Statutory Body means an autonomous authority regulating veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals Definitions

25 The VSB Objectives and functions
Objectives and functions are described in TAHC Chapter 3.2 Article The VSB Objectives and functions Taking note of the OIE TAHC standards, the establishment of a VSB in a country is considered to be a necessity for the profession AS A WHOLE.

26 The VSB The authority of the VSB regarding licensing /
registration of veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals VSB registration or licensing VETERINARIAN Public - Official sector Private sector define category of veterinary para-professionals AND define designated tasks for each category VETERINARY PARA-PROFESSIONAL Public-Official sector

27 VPP´s regulated by the VSB and their relationship to veterinarians
Veterinary para-professional authorised by the VETERINARY STATUTORY BODY to carry out certain designated tasks (dependent upon the category of veterinary para-professional) in a territory and delegated to them under the responsibility and direction of a VETERINARIAN

28 The VSB Objectives and functions
The VSB : Objectives & Functions to regulate veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals through licensing and/or registration of such persons; to determine the minimum standards of education (initial and continuing) required for degrees, diplomas and certificates entitling the holders thereof to be registered as veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals; to determine the standards of professional conduct of veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals and to ensure these standards are met. The VSB Objectives and functions

29 The VSB Chapter 3.2, article 3.2.12 of the TAHC deals specifically
with the evaluation of the VSB and defines the respective standards VSB´s have been in existence in many countries for many years, with wide variations in legal basis; autonomy; objectives; authority; functions and responsibilities, composition; administrative procedures etc. However, in quiet a number of countries there is no VSB at all. The Veterinary Statutory Body

30 The VSB “Name” Be it called a “Veterinary Council” or a “Veterinary Board” or by any other name, the establishment of a VSB in a given country depends on the political/administrative systems in place. Hence it may be for example a national body or it may be a state or provincial body with an umbrella VSB at national/federal level, depending the particularities of the VS in the country. VSB Terminology

31 The Veterinary Statutory Body
VSB - Summary In summary, a VSB is established by law, should be autonomous, has a democratically elected membership representing the whole spectrum of the profession, determines minimum standards of veterinary education, sets standards for professional performance and ethical behavior and licenses/registers veterinarians and VPP´s which also implies the authority to withdraw such licenses and de-register following breaches of professional conduct or ethical behavior. The Veterinary Statutory Body

32 Recommendations Conclusion
Within the context of this Conference on Veterinary Legislation it is recommended that countries 1. provide enabling national legislation for the establishment of an autonomous “Veterinary Statutory Body” with clearly defined powers and objectives to regulate the veterinary profession as a whole in accordance with OIE standards as contained and referred to in article of the TAHC Conclusion

33 Recommendations Conclusion
2. clearly define “veterinarian” and “ veterinary para-professional” in such legislation; 3. provide an enabling legislative environment for the establishment of private veterinary sector organizations and their participation in all relevant animal health activities of the country. Conclusion

34 It may be a long road ahead – but dont despair – you will get there !
THANK YOU


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