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RABIES IN SOUTH ASIA - EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS C.K.Singh and B.S. Sandhu Rabies Research-cum-Diagnostic Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and.

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Presentation on theme: "RABIES IN SOUTH ASIA - EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS C.K.Singh and B.S. Sandhu Rabies Research-cum-Diagnostic Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and."— Presentation transcript:

1 RABIES IN SOUTH ASIA - EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS C.K.Singh and B.S. Sandhu Rabies Research-cum-Diagnostic Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, INDIA

2 Talking from highest prevalence of rabies in Eurasia More than 20,000 human deaths occur every year More than 20,000 human deaths occur every year 17.4 million humans are bitten by dogs in India every year 17.4 million humans are bitten by dogs in India every year Over Rs crores are spent annually on post bite vaccination assuming about half of the exposed do not get PET Over Rs crores are spent annually on post bite vaccination assuming about half of the exposed do not get PET Over 15 Crores is spent on PET in farm animals Over 15 Crores is spent on PET in farm animals

3 The Study The study was conducted on brain tissues collected from a total of 356 animals including 231 dogs, 79 buffaloes and 46 cows. The study was conducted on brain tissues collected from a total of 356 animals including 231 dogs, 79 buffaloes and 46 cows. The brain tissues of only those animals that were suspected to be suffering from rabies clinically were included in this study. The brain tissues of only those animals that were suspected to be suffering from rabies clinically were included in this study.

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10 Impression smear from hippocampus of a rabid dog showing magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Sellers stain x875

11 Section of Hippocampus of a rabid dog showing intra- cytoplasmic eosinophilic Negri bodies ( arrows ) in neurons. H&E x875

12 Incidence in animals SuspectedConfirmed SuspectedConfirmed dogs 128 dogs 231 dogs 128 dogs 79 buffaloes 44 buffaloes 79 buffaloes 44 buffaloes 46 cows 29 cows 46 cows 29 cows

13 Initial Signs of Rabies Rabid Dogs Rabid Dogs About half the rabid dogs go off feed & show change in behavior few exhibit fever. Ocular involvement is rare. About half the rabid dogs go off feed & show change in behavior few exhibit fever. Ocular involvement is rare. Rabid Cows Rabid Cows Almost every rabid cow goes off feed and about half the rabid cows exhibit fever. Few rabid cows exhibit ocular involvement. Almost every rabid cow goes off feed and about half the rabid cows exhibit fever. Few rabid cows exhibit ocular involvement. Rabid Buffaloes Rabid Buffaloes Majority of rabid buffaloes go off feed and more than half exhibit fever. Majority of buffaloes show ocular involvement. Majority of rabid buffaloes go off feed and more than half exhibit fever. Majority of buffaloes show ocular involvement.

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16 Most susceptible Age/Sex Incidence in higher in adult dogs (>3 Yrs.) and pups ( 3 Yrs.) and pups (<6 M). The incidence is minimum in 6 M to 3 Years dogs. The higher incidence of rabies in male dogs is largely due to their gregarious wandering and furious nature especially during breeding season. The higher incidence of rabies in male dogs is largely due to their gregarious wandering and furious nature especially during breeding season.

17 Signs & Symptoms - Dogs v/s Bovines Only 24 percent rabid dogs show hyper salivation that is characteristic for bovines. So, Veterinarian need not look for clinical hypersalivation while suspecting dog rabies. Only 24 percent rabid dogs show hyper salivation that is characteristic for bovines. So, Veterinarian need not look for clinical hypersalivation while suspecting dog rabies. Only 30 % rabid dogs show paralysis. Paralysis is not necessarily the end sign in dogs. Only 30 % rabid dogs show paralysis. Paralysis is not necessarily the end sign in dogs.

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20 Signs & Symptoms - Dogs v/s Bovines About half of the rabid dogs continue to recognize their owner About half of the rabid dogs continue to recognize their owner Most rabid cows and buffaloes fail to recognize their owners Most rabid cows and buffaloes fail to recognize their owners

21 Signs & Symptoms - Dogs v/s Bovines More than half (61%) of all rabid animals show aggressive behavior. Majority of aggressive rabid dogs inflict bite wounds to humans and/or other animals. More than half (61%) of all rabid animals show aggressive behavior. Majority of aggressive rabid dogs inflict bite wounds to humans and/or other animals. Aggression of bovines is limited to inflicting trauma to themselves. No rabid bovine ever bites other animals and/or humans. Aggression of bovines is limited to inflicting trauma to themselves. No rabid bovine ever bites other animals and/or humans.

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26 Bovines - Similarity Bellowing in Bovines Majority of both cows and buffaloes (66%) reveal prolonged and prominent fits of loud bellowing Majority of both cows and buffaloes (66%) reveal prolonged and prominent fits of loud bellowing

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28 Bovines - Differences Drooling Saliva - 32% v/s 86% Drooling saliva is often reported as the characteristic feature in rabies in bovines Drooling saliva is often reported as the characteristic feature in rabies in bovines It was found that hyper salivation was exhibited by less than half (32%) of rabid buffaloes It was found that hyper salivation was exhibited by less than half (32%) of rabid buffaloes However, hyper salivation was more commonly exhibited (86%) by rabid cows. However, hyper salivation was more commonly exhibited (86%) by rabid cows.

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32 Bovines - Differences Micturition in Bovines Rabid Cows Rabid Cows Reveal frequent micturition Reveal frequent micturition Rabid Buffaloes Rabid Buffaloes Frequent micturition is not common in buffaloes Frequent micturition is not common in buffaloes

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35 Month-wise Incidence Increased incidence in dogs was reported during January, February, July and November. Increased incidence in dogs was reported during January, February, July and November. Increased incidence in buffaloes was observed during January to March Increased incidence in buffaloes was observed during January to March Increased incidence in cattle was observed during March, April, June, August, October and November Increased incidence in cattle was observed during March, April, June, August, October and November

36 Major Area of Concern 78% of owned rabid dogs were not vaccinated prophylactically. 78% of owned rabid dogs were not vaccinated prophylactically. There is high incidence of rabies in owned/community dogs. There is high incidence of rabies in owned/community dogs.

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38 YearTotalPositiveSex Off feed ParalysisSalivation Aggress iveness Fever Recognize Owner Vaccination Difficult standing Difficult intake Age M F + - <6 M 6- 12M 1-2yrs >3>3>3> Total % Characteristics of rabid dogs

39 YearTotalSex Off feed MicturitionParalysisSalivationFever Recogniz e owner Bellowing Difficult standing Age M F + - <6 M 6-12M1-2 Year s 2-3> Total % Characteristics of rabid cows

40 YearTotal Positi ve Sex Off feed MicturitionParalysisSalivationFever Recognize owner Bellowing Difficult standing Age M F + - <6 M 6- 12M 1-2year2-3> Total % Characteristics of rabid buffaloes


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