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Assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination of livestock guardian dogs in the framework of oral rabies vaccination of wild canids in Israel.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination of livestock guardian dogs in the framework of oral rabies vaccination of wild canids in Israel."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination of livestock guardian dogs in the framework of oral rabies vaccination of wild canids in Israel

2 B.A. Yakobson 1, R. King 2, N. Sheichat 1, B. Eventov 3 and D. David 1 1 Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, 2 Nature & Parks Authority, 3 Golan District, VSAH Israel

3 Rabies in Wildlife in Israel

4 Rabies incidence in Israel, 1998

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6 Vaccine Bait

7 ORV

8 Distribution plots for ORV

9 Example of flight lines (300 m) of ORV distribution

10 Degree of coverage with flight lines using baits/km 2

11 Oral rabies vaccination, YearArea (km 2 )# of baits Autumn ,250 Spring , Spring 3,75061,500 Autumn ,210100,000 Autumn ,000220, ,600220,000 Spring ,000240,000 Autumn ,600295,000 Spring 2004, 5 16,500245,000 Autumn ,500340,000

12 Tetracycline and antibody detection in sampled animals YearTetracyclineSeroconversion Positive % positive Positive % positive / / / / / / / / / /

13 Rabies, Israel ORV North ORV all country Outbreak in central Israel

14 Vaccination 1,200,000 Monitoring 200,000 Total 1,400,000 Annual Budget , in US$ ,000,000

15 Rabies incidence in Israel, 2005 Dogs 20 Cattle 9 Wolf 2 Cat 1 Badger 1 Fox 1 TOTAL 34

16 Rabies in Golan & Upper Galilee, ORV

17 Golan Heights & Upper Galilee

18 n n The human population on the Golan is sparse, the region has relatively large open areas, and significant segments of it have been declared nature reserves. The Golan is home to thousands of gazelles, rock rabbits, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, and even a rare subspecies of wolf unique to the Golan. They cohabit with badgers, jackals, wildcats, and the rare leopard or two

19 Golan Heights n n Area ,158 sq km Border length with Syria km Highest peak ,224 m above sea level Villages Jewish Druze villages Main town Katzrin. (the only town) Jewish population ,500 Druze population ,000 Nature reserve sq km Cultivated area sq km Grazing lands sq km Cattle ,950 head Sheep ,000 n n Household dogs ,334 n n Livestock guarding dogs

20 Objective of the Study To determine the feasibility of oral rabies vaccination of packs of livestock guarding dogs (LGD)

21 Material and Methods n n Two different bait formats (fishmeal polymer and coated sachets) of the US product Raboral V-RG, Merial were used n n Both formats were presented to packs of dogs in 5 different test zones n n Total number of 42 (5 packs of 5, 6, 8, 11, 12 in each) dogs were observed n n The behaviour of bait ingestion was recorded No analysis for serology or biomarkers was done

22 Baits used in the study

23 Livestock guarding dog breeds Breed Number Pyrenean144 Maremma53 Akbash36 Caucasian shepherd9 Mixed breed116 Total 358

24 Livestock guarding dogs ( LGD) n n Livestock guarding dogs (LGD) are generally large and protective. n n Two to five dogs may be placed with a flock or herd depending on its size. n n LGD have been known to fight to the death with predators, but in most cases, predator attacks are prevented by a display of aggressiveness. n n Minimized human contact (probably the most critical ingredient for success)

25 Results in LGD Baits TypeNo. used No. found by dog No. untouched by dog No. swallowed Vaccine sachet punctured Vaccine sachet untouched probable vaccination Fishmeal % 12/42 Coated % 6/42

26 Summary of results n n The fishmeal bait was more attractive to the LGD than the coated one - 88% vs 73% n n Only 28% of vaccines reached the oral cavity with fishmeal bait in comparison to 12% with coated baits

27 Conclusions n n The estimated efficacy of rabies oral vaccination, using 2 commercial vaccine baits designed for wild canids, in packs of LGD is very low (a maximum of 28%) n n Stray dog removal is an essential part of rabies control in LGD n n At least 2 parental vaccinations of LGD is needed before their release n n Identification (microchip) of LGD is necessary to monitor that this concept is working n n Continuation of ORV in wildlife must also be ensured

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