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Hearing: How do we hear?. Hearing: The Nature of Sound Module 9: Sensation.

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Presentation on theme: "Hearing: How do we hear?. Hearing: The Nature of Sound Module 9: Sensation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hearing: How do we hear?

2 Hearing: The Nature of Sound Module 9: Sensation

3 Sound Sound, like light, comes in waves Sound is vibration Features of sound include: –Pitch –Hertz –decibels

4 Pitch A sound’s highness or lowness Dependent on the frequency of the sound wave – the more “waves per second” the higher the frequency or pitch Is measured as hertz (Hz)

5 Hertz (Hz) A measure of the number of sound wave peaks per second; measures “frequency” Determines the pitch of the sound Human hearing goes from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz


7 Decibel (dB) A measure of the height of the sound wave Determines the loudness of the sound Sometimes called amplitude

8 What are good sounds versus bad What volume do you think is okay? Not good, not bad? Bad?


10 Hearing: The Structure of the Auditory System Module 9: Sensation

11 Break It Down Sound waves are collected in the outer ear, amplified in the middle ear, and transduced, in the inner ear.

12 PINNA It collects sound and directs it into the outer ear canal. The visible part of the outer ear.

13 Parts of the Ear – Sound Waves

14 The opening through which sound waves travel as they move into the ear for processing Ends at the eardrum Auditory Canal

15 Parts of the Ear – Auditory Canal


17 Eardrum Also called the tympanic membrane. A thin membrane that vibrates when sound waves reach it. it transfers sound vibration from the air to the tiny bones of the middle ear Can be damaged by objects in the ear or exceptionally loud noises


19 Parts of the Ear – Tympanic Membrane

20 Bones of the middle ear - Ossicles Three tiny bones that transfer sound waves from the eardrum to the cochlea Hammer, anvil and stirrup –Fun fact: the stirrup is the smallest bone in the human body – only.25 cm


22 Parts of the Ear - Occicles

23 Oval Window The point on the surface of the cochlea which receives the sound vibration from the bones of the middle ear (ossicles) As the oval window vibrates, the fluid in the cochlea vibrates.

24 Parts of the Ear – Oval Window

25 Cochlea A hearing organ where sound waves are changed into neural impulses (transduction) The major organ of hearing Filled with fluid; a snail shaped body tube

26 Parts of the Ear - Cochlea


28 Hair Cells The receptor cells for hearing in the cochlea that change sound vibrations into neural impulses Transduction!

29 Parts of the Ear - Hair Cells

30 Parts of the Ear – Oval Window

31 Auditory Nerve The nerve that carries sound information from the ears to the temporal lobes of the brain

32 Parts of the Ear – Auditory Nerve

33 Divisions of the Ear Ear’s structure can be divided into: –The outer ear –The middle ear –The inner ear

34 Divisions of the Ear



37 Hearing Sound comes into the ear Goes through the ear canal to the eardrum Ear drum changes sound into vibrations Vibrations go through middle ear to the inner ear –

38 Hearing Where vibrations are changed into neural impulses so that the brain can read / interpret the sound – What are the receptors cells for hearing?

39 Problems with hearing Conduction deafness* (middle ear damage) Nerve deafness (hair cell or auditory nerve damage)

40 Hearing: Sound Localization Module 9: Sensation

41 Localization of Sound Locating where sound is originating from Done through two cues: –Which ear hears the sound first? –Which ear hears the louder sound?

42 Localization of Sound

43 Another sense in your ears? Is there another sense in your ear?

44 Vestibular Sense The system for sensing body orientation and balance Relies on fluid in the semicircular canals of the inner ear Spinning in circles disrupts the fluid.

45 Parts of the Ear – Semicircular Canals


47 Semicircular canal What situations will affect the semicircular canal

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