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Stray dogs and rabies in Bangkok, Thailand

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1 Stray dogs and rabies in Bangkok, Thailand
Songsri Kasempimolporn Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Bangkok, Thailand

2 Estimated dog population and vaccine coverage in Bangkok, Thailand Data were compiled by The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration and the Bureau of National Statistics Dog population House dogs , , ,504 No. vaccinated , , ,478 (67%) (86%) (91%) Stray dogs , , ? No.vaccinated ?? ?? ??


4 Human deaths from rabies, 1997-2006
Year Bangkok*/Thailand /58 /57 /68 /50 /37 /30 /21 /19 /20 /25 * Bitten by dogs located in Bangkok

5 Sources of rabies transmitted to man, 2002-2005
Dog 81% Not recorded 9% Mongoose 5% Rabbit 5% 2003 Dog 93% Not recorded 7% 2002 Not recorded 5% Dog 95% 2004 Dog 70% Not recorded 20% Monkey 5% Cat 5% 2005

6 Rabies virus N gene was digested with enzyme DdeI or HinfI
Study of molecular epidemiology of rabies virus that is prevalent among dogs in Bangkok A B Rabies virus N gene was digested with enzyme DdeI or HinfI

7 Canine rabies virus M I II Hf Type I: DdI-HfI Type II: DdII-HfII
Type III: DdIII-HfI Type IV: DdIV-HfI Type V: DdIV-HfIII

8 Dog Cat

9 Stray dogs in Bangkok, Thailand:
Rabies virus infection and rabies antibody prevalence

10 Saliva sample collection was done with a total of 3,314 dogs seen for surgical sterilization during 12/2003-6/2004

11 Detection of rabies virus in dog saliva
Screening test: The latex agglutination test (Kasempimolporn et al. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38: ) Confirmatory test: RT-PCR with nested primers

12 Blood sample collection

13 Determination of rabies antibody in dog serum
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) - A minimum value of 0.5 IU/ml of neutralizing antibodies should be attained to demonstrate seroconversion in humans, and we used the same for the dogs. - An estimated true prevalence of antibodies among stray dogs was calculated using the Rogan-Gladen-estimator and the confidence interval (CI) was set at 95% (Grenier and Gardner, Prev Vet Med 2000;45:43-59)

14 Latex agglutination test

15 Detection of rabies virus RNA in saliva specimen by RT-PCR
524 bp DNA Ladder 100 bp + ve Control - ve Control Dog saliva The prevalence of rabies virus infection among stray dogs investigated was 0.03% (1 of 3,314)

16 Central Bangkok Bangkok’s outskirts
Seroprevalence of rabies antibodies among stray dogs, based on an ELISA cut-off level of 0.5 EU/ml Central Bangkok Bangkok’s outskirts No. tested No. positive Adjusted seroprevalence No. teested No. positive Adjusted seroprevalence % % CI % %CI 1, , The overall seroprevalence of rabies antibody among stray dogs in Bangkok was 62% (95%CI 54-70%)

17 Map of Bangkok depicting the 50 districts
Map of Bangkok depicting the 50 districts. Shaded surface areas represent the districts in which the antibody seroprevalence among stray dogs reached 70%

18 Conclusions Rabies infection is still prevalent in Bangkok
Low vaccination coverage and ineffective management of stray dogs are the most likely reasons for the dog rabies elimination program’s lack of success

19 Thank you

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