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Function Transports substances O2, CO2, hormones, waste, etc. Regulate pH Restrict fluid loss at injury site Defense against pathogens Stabilize body.

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Presentation on theme: "Function Transports substances O2, CO2, hormones, waste, etc. Regulate pH Restrict fluid loss at injury site Defense against pathogens Stabilize body."— Presentation transcript:


2 Function Transports substances O2, CO2, hormones, waste, etc. Regulate pH Restrict fluid loss at injury site Defense against pathogens Stabilize body temperature

3 Make up Is a connective tissue Has 2 parts: Cells (rbc, wbc, platelets) = 45% Plasma (water, protein, amino acids..) = 55% Hematocrit – measurement of the blood volume by centrifuging a blood sample

4 Three types of Blood cells Red blood cells (RBC) – erythrocytes White Blood cells (WBC) – leukocytes Platelets – thrombocytes Cells are made by hemopoiesis (in bone marrow) Cells are destroyed by phagocytosis in liver & spleen


6 Pg 382 1-3

7 RBCs Shape is a biconcave disc There are 5 million per cubic mm Contain no nucleus Life span of 120 days

8 Function of RBCs Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Plenty of oxygen makes bright red blood – oxyhemoglobin Low amount of O2 is bluish red- deoxyhemoglobin Hemoglobin – molecule that combines with oxygen Iron is important to make hemoglobin

9 Formation To make RBCs the body needs: Folic acid Vitamin B12 Iron Erythropoietin (kidney hormone) stimulates RBC production Too few RBCs and you will have anemia

10 WBCs General function is to protect the body against disease There are 5 types of leukocytes (in 2 categories): Granulocytes (grainy cytoplasm) Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Agranulocytes (lack grainy cytoplasm): Monocytes Lymphocytes


12 Neutrophil Nucleus with several lobes Active phagocytes forming 60% of WBCs Present in pus of wounds Life span 10 hrs.

13 Basophil Produces heparin and histamines Important in inflammatory reaction Less than 1% of WBC numbers

14 Eosinophil Mainly attack parasites marked with antibodies by releasing toxic compounds 2% of WBCs

15 Monocyte Larger cell, horseshoe shaped nucleus Become macrophages Attract fibroblasts 6%

16 Lymphocyte Nucleus is dark and takes up most of the cell Defense against invaders Produce antibodies 30% of WBCs


18 Ranking WBCs from most common to least: Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Neutrophil 60% Lymphocyte 30% Monocyte 6% Eosinophil 2 % Basophil <1%


20 Platelets Thrombocytes Functions to clot the blood and close breaks in blood vessels

21 Plasma Liquid portion of the blood is 92% water Also responsible to transport gases, nutrients, vitamins and plasma proteins

22 Plasma proteins Albumin- blood pressure, made in liver Globulin Alpha & beta- from liver transport lipids Gamma – from lymph tissue, make antibodies for immunity Fibrinogen- important for blood clotting (from liver) Must be converted to Fibrin first before can have clotting affect


24 Pg. 404 13 – 20, 33

25 Hemostasis Stopping blood flow Involves coagulation and clotting of the blood to seal the site of damage

26 Hemostasis

27 Three parts of hemostasis 1. Blood vessel spasm: seratonin= vasoconstrictor 2. Platelet plug formation 3. Blood coagulation conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin (caused by an enzyme called thrombin) Thromboplastin Prothrombin ThrombinFibrinogen Fibrin Ca 2+

28 Thrombus – abnormal blood clot Embolus – when clot moves to another place

29 Coagulation – thickening of the blood to form a clot

30 Blood typing 1901 – Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups Controlled by 3 Alleles A & B (co-dominant), O (recessive)


32 If mom is type A (AA) and dad is type O (OO) what are the kids?


34 If blood has an antibody that is not recognized by the body it will be attacked by the immune system. Type O is universal donor – because no antigens on surface of the blood cells Type AB is universal recipient – has all antigens accepted Agglutination – clumping of RBCs after transfusion


36 Rh factor Either you will have surface Rh antigens (Rh+) or you don’t have the antigens (Rh-) Rh factor is a dominant allele If baby is Rh+ and mom is Rh-, there is a chance that blood can mix between the two during birth and mom’s immune system will attack the baby Erythroblastosis fetalis


38 Blood saftey Blood carries many diseases and so anyone coming into contact with it must be careful. Exposure to contaminated blood can transmit a disease Blood born pathogens: Hepatitis B Hepatitis C HIV Malaria

39 Testing blood A test kit can be used to test your blood type. It involves pricking your finger and placing a drop of blood on a card that will react to a serum on the card that contains antibodies. You will be given the opportunity to test your blood type using this technique

40 Blood disorders Carbon monoxide poisoning CO binds to the blood cell and prevents O2 from binding to it Anemia Iron deficiency (most common) Aplastic anemia – bone marrow doesn’t make enough RBCs Sickle cell anemia – cells abnormally shaped (genetic) Complications: organ failure, pain, lethargy, stroke Hemorrhagic anemia – extreme blood loss

41 Leukemia Type of cancer Overproduction of immature WBCs They take the place of RBCs Treated with bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy and radiation

42 Infectious mononucleosis Called “mono” or the “kissing disease” is an infection caused by Epstein Barr virus Mononucleosis refers to increase in type of WBC (lymphocytes) Common virus that most people have been exposed to

43 Septicemia – blood poisoning An infection enters the blood stream Can be deadly Treated with antibiotics Also called “sepsis”

44 THROMBOCYTOPENIA Low production of platelets Causes bruising or bleeding from even small hit

45 Jaundice In newborn is caused by liver not functioning fully Secretes bilirubin into the blood causing yellowish skin color Exposure to fluorescent lights (Bili lights) will break down the substance

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