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1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?” 2. Why did he use pea plants?

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Presentation on theme: "1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?” 2. Why did he use pea plants?"— Presentation transcript:



3 1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?” 2. Why did he use pea plants?

4 1. Gregor Mendel 2. To study the inheritance of traits and they reproduced quickly

5 1.What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean? 2.What type of offspring results when you cross two pure “true” breeding parents with different traits? 3.What are the offspring of two parents called?

6 1. Both alleles are either dominant or recessive RR or rr 2. All hybrid (Rr) offspring result 3. F1 generation

7 What results when the offspring (F1) of true breeding parents self-pollinate?

8 Rr RrRr RRRr rr

9 1.What is probability? 2.What is the probability of getting heads when you flip a penny?

10 1.Probability: The chance of something happening! 2.½ or 50%

11 Why did we keep increasing the number of flips of our penny in the “Coin Toss” lab?

12 The higher the number of trials you perform, the more likely you are to get the expected outcome (probability). ½ heads, ½ tails

13 If you toss a coin 6 times in a row, what is the probability it will land heads all 6 times?

14 ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ = 1/64

15 What is the “Principle of Independent Assortment?”

16 During gamete formation, genes for different traits separate without influencing the other.

17 Be able to define: Compete Dominance Incomplete Dominance Co-Dominance

18 Complete Dominance The dominant trait (G) over shadows the recessive trait (g) and only the dominant trait shows up in the phenotype. Incomplete Dominance Neither trait is dominant over the other and a new trait is displayed. Red flowers crossed with white flowers make pink flowers. Co-Dominance Both traits are equally displayed and neither is dominant over the other. ABO blood types: A blood x B blood = AB blood

19 Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type: Type A Type B Type AB Type O

20 Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type: AB has same genotype and phenotype

21 What are polygenic traits?

22 Traits that have a wide variety of color ranges such as eye colors, hair color, skin color.

23 How many different gametes would you get from the following parent? A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h

24 How many different gametes would you get from the following parent? A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h 1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 x 2 = 32 gametes

25 Know the steps of MEIOSIS I and II and the formation of gametes (sex cells)! 4 Sperm are produced 1 Egg and 3 polar bodies are produced Female Male

26 The paired, homologous chromosomes come together during Meiosis I to make Tetrads Which cross over and share their genes The chromatids pull apart during Meiosis I I 4 genetically different cells result at the end of Meiosis Haploid = one set of chromosomes

27 When does crossing over occur during Meiosis?

28 During Prophase I

29 1.What is this called? 2.What 4 things are shown from this picture?

30 1.What is this called? Karyotype 2.Shows: Autosomes = all chromosomes except sex chromosomes # 1 - 22 chromosome pairs Sex Chromosomes (XX female or XY male) # 23 pair Homologous Chromosomes = chromosomes that code for the same traits Inherited Disorders (ex: Down’s, Turner’s, Kleinfelter’s, Super males)

31 What is non-disjunction?

32 Non-disjunction – When chromosome pairs don ’ t separate during Meiosis Can involve all types of chromosomes (sex, autosomes, homologous)

33 What chromosomal disorder is this on the #21 pair? #21

34 Down’s Syndrome (Trisomy 21) #21

35 What chromosomal disorder is this on the Sex Chromosome pair? XXY

36 Kleinfelter’s Syndrome

37 What chromosomal disorder is this on the Sex Chromosome pair? XO

38 Turner’s Syndrome

39 Who determines the sex of the offspring? Mother or Father Why? What is probability of getting a girl? A boy?

40 Father determines sex of offspring He provides either an X or a Y to pair up with the mother’s X to make a boy or girl 50% chance of Boy 50% chance of Girl

41 What is this picture called? What do each of the shapes and shading combinations represent? How many generations are shown?

42 Pedigree Chart = shows how a trait is passed from one generation to the next. 3 Generations Normal Male Normal Female Female with Trait Carrier Female Male with Trait Carrier Male Line = Marriage

43 Be able to describe the differences between: Meiosis and Mitosis Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

44 MitosisMeiosis Somatic Cells – all body cells Sex Cells - gametes 2 cells are made4 cells are made DiploidHaploid Asexual ReproductionSexual Reproduction Advantages  No mate needed for reproduction  Very fast reproduction time  Lots of organisms Advantages  GENETIC DIVERSITY! Disadvantages  All organisms are alike, No Genetic Diversity Disadvantages  Need a mate for reproduction  Slower reproduction time  Fewer organisms

45 Know the term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?

46 Sex-linked gene/trait – Traits linked to sex chromosomes such as hemophilia or colorblindness Only carried on X Y doesn’t carry traits. Key:

47 Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: Allele Gametes Genes Genetics Karyotype Pedigree Probability Punnett Square

48 Allele- Different forms of a gene Gametes- Sex Cells (egg & sperm) Gene- Part of a chromosome; codes for traits Genetics- Study of how traits are passed generation to generation Karyotype- Picture of all chromosomes matched up (looking for abnormal # of chromosomes) Pedigree- Tool to figure out possible outcomes Probability - Chance of something happening- Punnett Square- Chart showing probability

49 Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: Dominant Recessive Genotype Phenotype Heterozygous Homozygous Trait Homologous

50 Dominant – Gene whose effect masks the partner (recessive) trait Recessive – Gene whose effect is masked by partner (dominant) trait Genotype – Genetic makeup of organism Phenotype – Trait expressed “physical” looks Heterozygous – Pair of different alleles (Rr) Homozygous – Pair of same kind of alleles (RR) (rr) Trait – Inherited characteristic Homologous – Pair of same kind of chromosomes

51 Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: Co-dominance Incomplete dominance Diploid Haploid Independent Assortment Non-disjunction Segregation

52 Co-dominance – Both alleles expressed EQUALLY Incomplete dominance – Blending of traits Diploid – Having 2 sets of chromosomes Haploid – Having 1 set of chromosomes Independent Assortment – Genes that separate have no effect on the other’s inheritance Non-disjunction – When chromosomes don’t separate Segregation – Separation of alleles

53 Understand which is the P, F1, F2 generations and how you get each.

54 Know how to do the following types of crosses: Monohybrid Cross Dihybrid Cross Incomplete Dominance Sex-linked Cross Must show key, parents’ genotypes, possible gametes, Punnett square, genotypes and phenotypes of offspring

55 Monohybrid Cross

56 Dihybrid Cross

57 Incomplete Dominance

58 Sex-linked Cross

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