1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?” 2. Why did he use pea plants?
1. Gregor Mendel 2. To study the inheritance of traits and they reproduced quickly
1.What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean? 2.What type of offspring results when you cross two pure “true” breeding parents with different traits? 3.What are the offspring of two parents called?
1. Both alleles are either dominant or recessive RR or rr 2. All hybrid (Rr) offspring result 3. F1 generation
What results when the offspring (F1) of true breeding parents self-pollinate?
What is the “Principle of Independent Assortment?”
During gamete formation, genes for different traits separate without influencing the other.
Be able to define: Compete Dominance Incomplete Dominance Co-Dominance
Complete Dominance The dominant trait (G) over shadows the recessive trait (g) and only the dominant trait shows up in the phenotype. Incomplete Dominance Neither trait is dominant over the other and a new trait is displayed. Red flowers crossed with white flowers make pink flowers. Co-Dominance Both traits are equally displayed and neither is dominant over the other. ABO blood types: A blood x B blood = AB blood
Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type: Type A Type B Type AB Type O
Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type: AB has same genotype and phenotype
Traits that have a wide variety of color ranges such as eye colors, hair color, skin color.
How many different gametes would you get from the following parent? A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h
How many different gametes would you get from the following parent? A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h 1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 x 2 = 32 gametes
Know the steps of MEIOSIS I and II and the formation of gametes (sex cells)! 4 Sperm are produced 1 Egg and 3 polar bodies are produced Female Male
The paired, homologous chromosomes come together during Meiosis I to make Tetrads Which cross over and share their genes The chromatids pull apart during Meiosis I I 4 genetically different cells result at the end of Meiosis Haploid = one set of chromosomes
1.What is this called? 2.What 4 things are shown from this picture?
1.What is this called? Karyotype 2.Shows: Autosomes = all chromosomes except sex chromosomes # 1 - 22 chromosome pairs Sex Chromosomes (XX female or XY male) # 23 pair Homologous Chromosomes = chromosomes that code for the same traits Inherited Disorders (ex: Down’s, Turner’s, Kleinfelter’s, Super males)
Who determines the sex of the offspring? Mother or Father Why? What is probability of getting a girl? A boy?
Father determines sex of offspring He provides either an X or a Y to pair up with the mother’s X to make a boy or girl 50% chance of Boy 50% chance of Girl
What is this picture called? What do each of the shapes and shading combinations represent? How many generations are shown?
Pedigree Chart = shows how a trait is passed from one generation to the next. 3 Generations Normal Male Normal Female Female with Trait Carrier Female Male with Trait Carrier Male Line = Marriage
Be able to describe the differences between: Meiosis and Mitosis Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
MitosisMeiosis Somatic Cells – all body cells Sex Cells - gametes 2 cells are made4 cells are made DiploidHaploid Asexual ReproductionSexual Reproduction Advantages No mate needed for reproduction Very fast reproduction time Lots of organisms Advantages GENETIC DIVERSITY! Disadvantages All organisms are alike, No Genetic Diversity Disadvantages Need a mate for reproduction Slower reproduction time Fewer organisms
Know the term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?
Sex-linked gene/trait – Traits linked to sex chromosomes such as hemophilia or colorblindness Only carried on X Y doesn’t carry traits. Key:
Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: Allele Gametes Genes Genetics Karyotype Pedigree Probability Punnett Square
Allele- Different forms of a gene Gametes- Sex Cells (egg & sperm) Gene- Part of a chromosome; codes for traits Genetics- Study of how traits are passed generation to generation Karyotype- Picture of all chromosomes matched up (looking for abnormal # of chromosomes) Pedigree- Tool to figure out possible outcomes Probability - Chance of something happening- Punnett Square- Chart showing probability
Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: Dominant Recessive Genotype Phenotype Heterozygous Homozygous Trait Homologous
Dominant – Gene whose effect masks the partner (recessive) trait Recessive – Gene whose effect is masked by partner (dominant) trait Genotype – Genetic makeup of organism Phenotype – Trait expressed “physical” looks Heterozygous – Pair of different alleles (Rr) Homozygous – Pair of same kind of alleles (RR) (rr) Trait – Inherited characteristic Homologous – Pair of same kind of chromosomes
Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: Co-dominance Incomplete dominance Diploid Haploid Independent Assortment Non-disjunction Segregation
Co-dominance – Both alleles expressed EQUALLY Incomplete dominance – Blending of traits Diploid – Having 2 sets of chromosomes Haploid – Having 1 set of chromosomes Independent Assortment – Genes that separate have no effect on the other’s inheritance Non-disjunction – When chromosomes don’t separate Segregation – Separation of alleles
Understand which is the P, F1, F2 generations and how you get each.
Know how to do the following types of crosses: Monohybrid Cross Dihybrid Cross Incomplete Dominance Sex-linked Cross Must show key, parents’ genotypes, possible gametes, Punnett square, genotypes and phenotypes of offspring