Presentation on theme: "OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Barry Hill President OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health."— Presentation transcript:
OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Barry Hill President OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health Panama City, Panama 28-30 June 2011
Aquaculture has been experiencing a boom since the mid-1970s, sustaining an average annual growth rate of around 9% until a recent slight fall back. Today it continues to expand in almost all regions of the world and is the fastest growing food animal production sector globally. There is substantial and growing international trade in live aquatic animals and their products.
A detailed analysis of aquaculture production and wild capture fisheries is published every 2 years by FAO.
World fish trade: export value - in 1000 US$ (FAO) - developing developed
However, infectious diseases are causing major aquaculture production losses in many countries, even having a significant negative impact on some national economies
In some countries, the rapid increase in aquaculture output has been based on species diversification which has led to an increase in the demand for introduction and transfers of live non-indigenous aquatic animals, some of which have introduced new diseases with them.
For example, outbreaks of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Chile since 2007 have had a devastating impact on the salmon farming industry, causing a massive reduction in production and in export volumes. Economic losses of many $100 millions. High numbers of farms closed and large numbers of job losses. Will take years to recover. A national disaster. Imported (from ??)
The main aim of OIE is to ensure the sanitary safety of international trade in live animals and their products. This includes providing standards and guidelines on the health measures to be used by the Aquatic Animal Health Services of importing and exporting countries to prevent the transfer of agents pathogenic for aquatic animals, while avoiding unjustified trade barriers.
The OIE standards applicable to international trade in aquatic animals and their products are laid out in the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code and in the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals.
The OIE standards and guidance in the Aquatic Code and Aquatic Manual aim to reduce disease risks
Developing the OIE standards for aquatic animals is the role of the Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission
Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission (elected May 2009 for 3 years) President: Dr Barry Hill (UK) Vice-President: Dr Ricardo Enriquez Sais (Chile) General Secretary: Dr Franck Berthe (EFSA) Members: Dr Olga Haenen (Netherlands) Dr Huang Jie (China) Dr Victor Manuel Vidal (Mexico)
The Commission is regularly assisted by: Don Lightner USA Rohana Subasinghe FAO, Rome Eli Katunguka-Rwakishaya Uganda
With advances in scientific knowledge, the Aquatic Health Standards Commission prepares draft texts for new chapters, or revises existing chapters of the Aquatic Code and the Aquatic Manual with the input of internationally renowned independent experts, OIE ad hoc groups, and expertise at the many OIE Reference Laboratories for aquatic animal diseases. These drafts are further refined with input from national experts of OIE Members before being finalised and presented to the National Delegates at the OIE General Session in May each year for adoption.
OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code (Aquatic Code)
Also available on-line at the OIE website
Some of the information available in the Aquatic Code Criteria for disease freedom Conditions for trade Quality of Aquatic Animal health Services Transport of farmed fish Zoning & compartmentalisation Procedures for aquatic animal waste disposal Stunning and killing of farmed fish for human consumption Guidelines for risk analysis Model export certificates Disease reporting obligations Responsible and prudent use of antimicrobial agents OIE listed diseases Surveillance for disease
Contents of the Aquatic Code General Provisions (Horizontal issues) Users guide Glossary Section 1 : Animal disease diagnosis, surveillance and notification Section 2 : Risk analysis Section 3 : Quality of Aquatic Animal Health Services Section 4 : General recommendations : disease prevention and control – Zoning/compartmentalisation – Recommendations on disinfection – Contingency planning – Fallowing in aquaculture – Handling, disposal and treatment of aquatic animal waste
Contents of the Aquatic Code General Provisions (contd) Section 5 : Trade measures, import/export procedures and health certification – General obligations – Certification procedures – Criteria to assess safety of aquatic animal commodities – Border posts and quarantine stations – Model veterinary certificates… Section 6 : Veterinary Public Health – Control of aquatic animal health hazards in aquatic animal feed – Antimicrobials: prudent use/monitoring/ controlling resistance (under development) Section 7 : Welfare of Farmed Fish – Transport – Stunning and killing for human consumption – Killing for disease control purposes (under development)
Contents of the Aquatic Code Disease specific chapters (OIE listed diseases - of importance to international trade) Section 8 : Diseases of Amphibians Section 9 : Diseases of Crustaceans Section 10 : Diseases of Fish Section 11 : Diseases of Molluscs
Article 1.2.1. Criteria for listing an aquatic animal disease Article 1.2.2. Criteria for listing an emerging aquatic animal disease Aquatic Code Chapter 1.2
A disease proposed for listing should meet all the relevant parameters set for each of the criteria; Parameters that support a listing include: A. Consequences B. Spread and C. Diagnosis Such proposals should be accompanied by a case definition for the disease. Criteria for listing an aquatic animal disease
For the purposes of the Aquatic Code An emerging disease means a newly recognised infection resulting from the evolution or change of an existing pathogenic agent, a known infection spreading to a new geographical area or population, or a previously unrecognised pathogenic agent or disease diagnosed for the first time and which has a significant impact on aquatic animal populations or public health.
Chapter 1.3. OIE list of aquatic animal diseases The list is reviewed annually by the AAHSC and recommendations for deletions and additions are proposed to OIE Members for adoption Notification and reporting requirements apply to all listed diseases and any new emerging diseases.
26 aquatic animals diseases listed by OIE (2011) 2 diseases of amphibians 8 diseases of crustaceans 9 diseases of fish 7 disease of molluscs
OIE list of aquatic animal diseases A key purpose of listing a disease in the Aquatic Code is to ensure transparency of the aquatic animal health status world-wide, by obliging Member Countries to report its occurrence to OIE. The OIE collates and disseminates the information received in reports on the status of those listed diseases in Member Countries (WAHIS and WAHID).
Obligation to notify and report disease detection to OIE
Disease notification In this context, it is important to understand that the circumstances for regular as well as immediate notification of aquatic animal diseases do not require the presence of clinical disease or mortality. The Aquatic Code clarifies in Article 188.8.131.52: This means that the presence of an infectious agent, even in the absence of clinical disease, should be reported.
OIE guidance on import requirements
Section 5. Trade measures, importation/exportation procedures and health certification General obligations related to certification Certification procedures Criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animal commodities Control of aquatic animal health risks associated with transport of aquatic animals Aquatic animal health measures applicable before and at departure Aquatic animal health measures applicable during transit from the place of departure in the exporting country to the place of arrival in the importing country
Section 5. Trade measures, importation/exportation procedures and health certification Frontier posts in the importing country Aquatic animal health measures applicable on arrival Measures concerning international transport of aquatic animal pathogens and pathological material Model health certificates for international trade in live aquatic animals and products of aquatic animal origin
39 Chapter 5.3 Criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animal commodities and products 2 sets of criteria: Criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animal commodities irrespective of country disease status Criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animal products destined for human consumption irrespective of country disease status
Sections 8-11 Specific disease chapters Each specific disease chapter includes recommendations to prevent the disease in question being introduced into the importing country definition of the pathogen / disease list of susceptible species what are safe commodities (irrespective of disease status) how to determine the free status of a country, zone or compartment recommendations for importations of aquatic animal commodities from a country, zone or compartment declared free recommendations for importations of aquatic animal commodities from a country, zone or compartment not declared free.
Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (Aquatic Manual)
Aquatic Manual Sixth edition of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (2009)
6 th edition, 2009 Published in September 2009 Major updates for all diseases Chapters only for listed diseases Amended format for future editions Next printed edition will be in 2012 In the meantime, amendments can be made to the web version
2011 edition of the Aquatic Manual is available on-line at the OIE website
Purpose of Aquatic Manual Provide internationally agreed standardised approach to the diagnosis of OIE-listed diseases (Aquatic Code) Facilitate international trade in aquatic animals and their products by: - ensuring harmonisation of diagnostic testing - avoiding differences in interpretation of results - ensuring quality of diagnostic tests Improve aquatic animal health worldwide;
Purpose of Aquatic Manual Describes diagnostic laboratory methods which are suitable for the detection of disease as part of a national aquatic animal health surveillance/control programme, or as part of a programme to underpin claims of freedom from a specific disease; To assist with the development of surveillance methodologies for OIE-listed diseases;
Purpose of Aquatic Manual Surveillance programmes aim to determine, from the results provided by standardised laboratory methods performed with samples collected according to defined rules, the health status for a country, zone or compartment for a specified disease.
Contents of the Aquatic Manual Part 1 General Provisions Section 1.1 Introductory Chapters Quality management in veterinary testing laboratories Principles and methods of validation of diagnostic assays for infectious diseases Methods for disinfection of aquaculture establishments
Contents of the Aquatic Manual Part 2 Recommendations Applicable to Specific Diseases Diseases of Amphibians (adopted May 2011) Diseases of Crustaceans Diseases of Fish Diseases of Molluscs
Each Section starts with general information on diseases of amphibians (in preparation), crustaceans, fish, molluscs A.Sampling B. Material and biological products required for the isolation and identification of pathogens General information
1.Scope For the purpose of this chapter, DISEASE NAME is considered to be INFECTION WITH [PATHOGEN NAME]. 2.Disease information 2.1. Agent factors 2.2. Host factors 2.3. Disease pattern 2.4. Control and prevention CHAPTER X.X.X. DISEASE X
3. Sampling 3.1. Selection of individual specimens 3.2. Preservation of samples for submission 3.3. Pooling of samples 3.4. Best organs or tissues 3.5. Samples/tissues that are not suitable (i.e. not possible to detect)
4. Diagnostic methods 4.1. Field diagnostic methods 4.2. Clinical methods 4.3. Agent detection and identification methods 5. Rating of tests against purpose of use 6. Test(s) recommended for targeted surveillance to declare freedom from Disease X. Describes test methods, for use in targeted surveillance to declare freedom from disease as outlined in the Aquatic Code.
OIE guidelines on disease surveillance
Chapter 1.4. of the Aquatic Code - provides standards for aquatic animal health surveillance Guide for Aquatic Animal Health Surveillance (2009) - provides detailed guidance on surveillance principles and practice.