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FEFAC OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 1 Aquatic animal feeds, challenges and opportunities.

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Presentation on theme: "FEFAC OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 1 Aquatic animal feeds, challenges and opportunities."— Presentation transcript:

1 FEFAC OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, Aquatic animal feeds, challenges and opportunities

2 FEFAC What is FEFAC?

3 3 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Autumn 2002: European Commission «Strategy for the sustainable development of European Aquaculture» and European Parliament Public Hearing on «Aquaculture in the EU» Aquaculture attracting growing attention from public and regulators focusing on food safety and sustainability issues At the same time: Aquaculture regulated by some 150 Community regulations coordinated framework and simplified regulation needed EU feed legislation based on land animals, not to specific needs and conditions of the aquafeed sector Therefore: 2003: FEFAC set up dedicated Fish Feed Committee FEFAC Fish Feed Committee A short history

4 4 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 President: Alberto Allodi, Italy Vice-president: Karl Tore Mæland, Norway Task: Identifying a common approach to address and solve sector problems related to EU feed legislation Strengthen relationship among stakeholders along the Aqua value chain Currently, around 20 members and fish feed experts from the EU countries as well as Norway attending (2-3 annual meetings) FEFAC Fish Feed Committee

5 5 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 The challenge ahead Half of the people that ever lived on the planet are alive at this moment in time World population predicted to reach 9 billions by 2050 Demand for animal proteins is set to increase towards Western consumption levels (according to USDA figures this means 92 kg of meat, 7 kg of fish, 272 kg of dairy and 254 eggs a year) With our present technological abilities and taking such issues into account as biodiversity, sustainability and climate change, we would need four planets Earth to meet this demand!

6 6 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Food security in perspective: the sustainability issue Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." Definition of sustainability given in the Report of the Brundtland Commission, Our Common Future', published on behalf of the United Nations by Oxford University Press, 1987.

7 7 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 challenge opportunity Aquafeeds : challenges and opportunities Formulated feeds deliver high safety standards both for farmed fish and final consumer (One Health) There are challenges to be addressed, in order to secure adequate supply of sustainable formulated fish feeds which can support further growth of aquaculture

8 8 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 EATiP is an international non-profit association dedicated to DEVELOPING, SUPPORTING and PROMOTING aquaculture and, especially and specifically, technology and innovation in aquaculture in Europe so as to: Establish a strong relationship between aquaculture and the consumer Assure a sustainable aquaculture industry Consolidate the role of aquaculture in society – Sustainable development – the EATiP approach

9 9 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Base formulation of Future Fish Feeds on solid knowledge of fish nutritional requirements, and expand the number of well characterized and sustainable raw materials which can be used Advanced novel feed technologies to produce cost effective feed with improved quality Understand and minimize negative effects of alternative diets on fish health and welfare Adapt and utilize advanced methods to understand and model nutritional responses Resolve strategic research problems in fish nutrition – Sustainable development – EATiP goals on fish feeds

10 10 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 – Sustainable development – solid knowledge of fish nutritional requirements Amino acidRequirement (% protein) Gilthead seabreamEuropean seabass Arg< His?? Ile?? Leu?? Lys Met+Cys Phe?? Thr?2.6 Trp Val??

11 11 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Reduction fisheries have not increased over the last 20 years; An increased share of fish meal / oil is allocated to aquaculture; Aquaculture is using more than 50% of fish meal and 90% of fish oil in the world. New growth has to be based on fishmeal / oil replacement! New growth has to be based on fishmeal / oil replacement! – Sustainable development – expand the number of available raw materials

12 12 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Potential new raw material sources: Plant protein concentrates LABPs and PAPs GM derived-plant proteins Algae – Sustainable development – expand the number of available raw materials

13 13 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Plant protein concentrates Soy, rape, …. –The drive for plant oils (bio-diesel and human food), creates huge quantities of cheap plant protein that can be upgraded Bio-energy development leads to increased production of wheat- and corn- gluten (being starch used for bio-ethanol production) Plant protein concentrates have shown to be good FM replacers, but the issue is the balance between price competitiveness and availability – Sustainable development – expand the number of available raw materials

14 14 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 LABPs limited possibilities for use in aqua feeds: Non-ruminant blood products Collagen proteins (fats) Hydrolysed feather meal Market acceptance still a challenge PAPs potential availability estimated at millions t/year in EU now wasted or underutilized! Good nutritional value for farmed fish and no food safety or fish health issues Regulation under revision – Sustainable development – expand the number of available raw materials LABPs and PAPs: the EU example

15 15 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Genetically modified plant raw materials 2 nd and 3 rd generation GM plants on their way into the market Protein- and amino acid-enriched ω3 fatty acid composition Reduced amount of anti nutritional factors Consumer resistance and political obstruction mainly in Europe – Sustainable development – expand the number of available raw materials

16 16 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Algae – Sustainable development – expand the number of available raw materials The actual source of DHA in the marine food web Sustainable Traceable Contaminants-free Consistent product quality Predictable pricing

17 17 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Aquaculture not only consumes fish – it also produces fish We should use less fish protein in the feed than fish protein produced through aquaculture! Aquaculture as Net Fish Protein Producer

18 18 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 How far are we? Kg salmon protein produced versus fish protein used in feed

19 19 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 GM plants/algae the way to fill the EPA-DHA gap? Requirements for EPA + DHA (adapted from Sadasivam Kaushik, INRA) per individual500mg/day World population of 6 billions 3 000t /day Annual Need t/year Availability Global fisheries t/year Edible, 50% t/year Fat content, 5% t/year EPA+DHA, 15% t/year Deficit> t/year

20 20 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 A balance must be found between different indicators of environmental performance! – Sustainable development – where is the priority?

21 21 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Health and welfare assessment always included in experimental protocols for FM/FO replacement trials An example: replacing fish oil with a proper and balanced blend of vegetable oils has very minor effects on the immune response and does not affect survival in sea bream – Sustainable development – effect of alternative diets on fish health and welfare From Montero et al., 2003

22 22 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Specific nutrients may positively impact fish health An example: MOS supplementation increases gut microvilli density and length in gilthead seabream (Dimitroglou et al., 2010) – Sustainable development – strategic issues in fish nutrition

23 23 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Essential for Food safety & quality, Fish health & welfare and the environment. Registration of fish feed additives is too much a burden; Problem is urgent in case of emerging species; Currently no innovations for fish feed additives; Competitive issue (e.g. phytase + astaxanthin allowed in most 3 rd countries). – Sustainable development – Legislative constraints to be addressed Additives for farmed fish: the EU example Examples: Phytase: only allowed in salmonid feeds, no other species; Enzymes: more than 100 approved for animal feed; only one (phytase) for fish feed (salmonids); Histidine: more than 5 years to register (only salmon); Astaxanthin: only allowed in salmonid grower diets;

24 24 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 – Sustainable development – Legislative constraints to be addressed Undesirable substances: the EU example Revision of Directive 2002/32/EC on undesirable substances has progressively adapted max. limits for key contaminants in the aquafeed chain FEFAC members have implemented the European guide for compound feed and pre-mixture manufacturers assessed by DGSANCO (EFMC) to apply HACCP-based Risk assessment for feed production FEFACs fishfeed committee has set up a dedicated Task Force on Contaminants to provide an interface with EFSA and the EU Standing Committee of the food chain FEFAC conducted a 1 st EU workshop on contaminants in Aquaculture in February 2006

25 25 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 BUT since Maximum limits traditionally have been based on feed for land animals, further adjustments are needed to reflect conditions in aquaculture (e.g).: Max. limit on endosulfane for fishfeed should be aligned on the base of new aquaculture specific risk assessment studies; Accumulation of limits for so many substances (39 max. limits) will make sourcing of raw materials extremely complex and challenging; EU legislation on undesirable substances adds app. 8% extra- cost to EU producers who are not on a level playing field with 3 rd country competitors not facing the same constraints – Sustainable development – Legislative constraints to be addressed Undesirable substances: the EU example

26 26 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 The importance of international standards International standards (OIE, Codex) play a major role in ensuring feed safety FEFAC developed its own Code of Good Manufacturing Practices

27 27 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health June 28 th, 2011 Sustainable aquaculture needs sustainable feed supply Innovative formulations, based on new research findings and alternative raw materials allow fish farmers to become net fish protein producers, without compromising fish health and welfare Safe, healthy and sustainable seafood from aquaculture will contribute to feeding a growing world population! Aquatic animal feeds, challenges and opportunities

28 FEFAC Thank you for your attention


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