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Early 19c Industrialization in America: The Market Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "Early 19c Industrialization in America: The Market Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early 19c Industrialization in America: The Market Revolution

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What were the results of early 19c
industrialization in America?

3 The Transportation Revolution

4 East vs. West (recap) Henry Clay Internal improvements
Highway system and toll roads A National Road (Cumberland Rd) Opposition The American system

5 Henry Clay

6 Cumberland (National Road), 1811

7 Conestoga Covered Wagons
Conestoga Trail, 1820s

8 Take Five… What does “Clinton’s Big Ditch” refer to?

9 Transportation Revolution
Canals Erie Canal Mainland Canal Railroads B & O

10 Erie Canal System

11 Erie Canal, 1820s Begun in 1817; completed in 1825

12 Canals in Early America
DeWitt Clinton Results: New York becomes the most populated state (until WWII!!!!) PA Canal (not so lucky!!!!)

13 Take Five… What problems are associated with early steam transportation?

14 Transportation Revolution (recap)
Steamships Problems with navigating rivers James Watt Robert Fulton The Clermont Accidents

15 Robert Fulton & the Steamboat
1807: The Clermont

16 Principal Canals in 1840

17 Did you know?????

18 The “Iron Horse” Wins! (1830)
1830  13 miles of track built by Baltimore & Ohio RR By 1850  9000 mi. of RR track [1860  31,000 mi.]

19 The Railroad Revolution, 1850s
Immigrant labor built the No. RRs. Slave labor built the So. RRs.

20 The Industrial Revolution
Shift from self-sufficiency to a specialized interdependent economy Reasons for the industrial revolution High labor costs Inventors Oliver Evans, Eli Whitney, Peter Cooper Abundant natural resources Water, Coal, Lumber etc.

21 Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791

22 Eli Whitney’s Gun Factory Interchangeable Parts Rifle

23 First prototype of the locomotive
Oliver Evans First automated flour mill First prototype of the locomotive

24 John Deere & the Steel Plow (1837)

25 Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper: 1831

26 Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph

27 Cyrus Field & the Transatlantic Cable, 1858

28 Elias Howe & Isaac Singer
1840s Sewing Machine

29 The Industrial Revolution (con’t)
Entrepreneurs Piracy Samuel Slater, John and Arthur Schofield, Francis Cabot Lowell Capital Banks Protective tariffs

30 Changes in the textile industry
Cottage industry Factories Emerging urban industrial working class British monopoly Mill towns Slater mills Lowell mills Lowell girls Child labor

31 Samuel Slater (“Father of the Factory System”)

32 The Lowell/Waltham System: First Dual-Purpose Textile Plant
Francis Cabot Lowell’s town

33 Lowell in 1850

34 Lowell Mill

35 Early Textile Loom

36 New England Textile Centers: 1830s

37 New England Dominance in Textiles

38 Starting for Lowell

39 What was their typical “profile?”
Lowell Girls What was their typical “profile?”

40 Lowell Boarding Houses What was boardinghouse life like?

41 Lowell Mills Time Table

42 Early “Union” Newsletter

43 The Factory Girl’s Garland
February 20, 1845 issue.

44 I’m a Factory Girl Filled with Wishes
I'm a factory girl Everyday filled with fear From breathing in the poison air Wishing for windows! I'm a factory girl Tired from the 13 hours of wok each day And we have such low pay Wishing for shorten work times! I'm a factory girl Never having enough time to eat Nor to rest my feet Wishing for more free time! I'm a factory girl Sick of all this harsh conditions Making me want to sign the petition! So do what I ask for because I am a factory girl And I'm hereby speaking for all the rest!

45 Irish Immigrant Girls at Lowell

46 The Early Union Movement
Workingman’s Party (1829) * Founded by Robert Dale Owen and others in New York City. Early unions were usually local, social, and weak. Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)—ruling in favor of workers!! Worker political parties were ineffective until the post-Civil War period.

47 Regional Specialization
EAST  Industrial SOUTH  Cotton & Slavery WEST  The Nation’s “Breadbasket”

48 American Population Centers in 1820

49 American Population Centers in 1860

50 National Origin of Immigrants: 1820 - 1860
Why now?

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