# DC MACHINE SHAIFUL NIZAM MOHYAR 2007/2008 UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS

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DC MACHINE SHAIFUL NIZAM MOHYAR 2007/2008 UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS
SCHOOL OF MICROELECTRONIC 2007/2008

2.0 INTRODUCTION Electromechanical Energy Conversion Motor
Electrical Energy Mechanical Energy Generator Electromechanical Energy Conversion

The machine’s magnetic field is the medium of (energy) conversion.
Pelec = vi = Teωm = Pmech The machine’s magnetic field is the medium of (energy) conversion.

GLOSSARY Torque, T – A force that produces rotation on a axis and also defined as a linear force multiplied by a radius. In an electric motor, this is the force from the interaction of the magnetic fields produced by the flow of current through the armature and field windings/coils. Flux, Φ - The magnetic field which is established around an energized conductor or permanent magnet. The field is represented by flux lines creating a flux pattern between opposite poles. The density of the flux lines is a measure of the strength of the magnetic field. Magnetic field, B - A region of space that surrounds a moving electrical charge or a magnetic pole, in which the electrical charge or magnetic pole experiences a force that is above the electrostatic ones associated with particles at rest.

The voltage in any real machine will
depend on three factors: 1. The flux, Φ in the machine. 2. The speed of rotation, ω. 3. A constant representing the construction of the machine.

2.0 INTRODUCTION…contd Flemming’s Left Hand Rule (Motor Rule)
Use: To determine the direction of a force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field.

2.0 INTRODUCTION…contd The carbon rod is NOT magnetic.
When no current flows, the rod is stationary When we turn on the current, the rod experiences a force that makes it move. The direction of the force is determined by Fleming' Left Hand Rule

2.1 CONSTRUCTION Cutaway view of a dc motor

Stator with visible poles
2.1 CONSTRUCTION ….contnd Stator with visible poles

2.1 CONSTRUCTION ….contnd Rotor of a dc motor.

2.2 CONSTRUCTION….contnd General arrangement of a dc machine

2.1 CONSTRUCTION….contnd The stator of the dc motor has poles, which are excited by dc current to produce magnetic fields. In the neutral zone, in the middle between the poles, commutating poles are placed to reduce sparking of the commutator. The commutating poles are supplied by dc current. Compensating windings are mounted on the main poles. These short-circuited windings damp rotor oscillations. .

2.1 CONSTRUCTION….contnd The poles are mounted on an iron core that provides a closed magnetic circuit. The motor housing supports the iron core, the brushes and the bearings. The rotor has a ring-shaped laminated iron core with slots. Coils with several turns are placed in the slots. The distance between the two legs of the coil is about 180 electric degrees.

2.1 CONSTRUCTION….contnd The coils are connected in series through the commutator segments. The ends of each coil are connected to a commutator segment. The commutator consists of insulated copper segments mounted on an insulated tube. Two brushes are pressed to the commutator to permit current flow. The brushes are placed in the neutral zone, where the magnetic field is close to zero, to reduce arcing.

Commutator of a dc motor
2.1 CONSTRUCTION….contnd Commutator of a dc motor

2.1 CONSTRUCTION….contnd The rotor has a ring-shaped
laminated iron core with slots. The commutator consists of insulated copper segments mounted on an insulated tube. Two brushes are pressed to the commutator to permit current flow. The brushes are placed in the neutral zone, where the magnetic field is close to zero, to reduce arcing.

2.1 CONSTRUCTION The commutator switches the current from one rotor coil to the adjacent coil. The switching requires the interruption of the coil current. The sudden interruption of an inductive current generates high voltages . The high voltage produces flashover and arcing between the commutator segment and the brush.

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY
shaft w h B Next slide looks down the shaft

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY….contnd
Current coming toward you Current leaving away from you B Shaft

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY….contnd
direction by left-hand rule F T = 2hFcos = 2hIwBNcos Thumb = current Forefinger = B Rest = Force

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY….contnd

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY….contnd

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY….contnd

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY….contnd

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY….contnd

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY….contnd

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY….contnd

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY….contnd

2.2 DC MACHINE OPERATION BASIC THEORY….contnd

2.3 DC MACHINE OPERATION In a dc motor, the stator poles are supplied by dc excitation current, which produces a dc magnetic field. The rotor is supplied by dc current through the brushes, commutator and coils. The interaction of the magnetic field and rotor current generates a force that drives the motor.

(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)
2.3 DC MACHINE OPERATION The magnetic field lines enter into the rotor from the north pole (N) and exit toward the south pole (S). The poles generate a magnetic field that is perpendicular to the current carrying conductors. The interaction between the field and the current produces a Lorentz force. The force is perpendicular to both the magnetic field and conductor. (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b) (b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)
2.3 DC MACHINE OPERATION The generated force turns the rotor until the coil reaches the neutral point between the poles. At this point, the magnetic field becomes practically zero together with the force. However, inertia drives the motor beyond the neutral zone where the direction of the magnetic field reverses. To avoid the reversal of the force direction, the commutator changes the current direction, which maintains the counterclockwise rotation. (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b) (b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)
2.3 DC MACHINE OPERATION Before reaching the neutral zone, the current enters in segment 1 and exits from segment 2, Therefore, current enters the coil end at slot a and exits from slot b during this stage. After passing the neutral zone, the current enters segment 2 and exits from segment 1, This reverses the current direction through the rotor coil, when the coil passes the neutral zone. The result of this current reversal is the maintenance of the rotation. (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b) (b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

2.4 DC Generator Operation

Fleming’s Right hand rule (Generator Rule)
2.4 DC Generator Operation Fleming’s Right hand rule (Generator Rule) Use: To determine the direction of the induced emf/current of a conductor moving in a magnetic field.

(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)
2.4 DC Generator Operation..contnd. The N-S poles produce a dc magnetic field and the rotor coil turns in this field. A turbine or other machine drives the rotor. The conductors in the slots cut the magnetic flux lines, which induce voltage in the rotor coils. The coil has two sides: one is placed in slot a, the other in slot b. (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b) (b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)
2.4 DC Generator Operation..contnd. In Figure (a), the conductors in slot a are cutting the field lines entering into the rotor from the north pole, The conductors in slot b are cutting the field lines exiting from the rotor to the south pole. The cutting of the field lines generates voltage in the conductors. The voltages generated in the two sides of the coil are added. (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b) (b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)
2.4 DC Generator Operation..contnd. The induced voltage is connected to the generator terminals through the commutator and brushes. In Figure (a), the induced voltage in b is positive, and in a is negative. The positive terminal is connected to commutator segment 2 and to the conductors in slot b. The negative terminal is connected to segment 1 and to the conductors in slot a. (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b) (b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)
2.4 DC Generator Operation..contnd. When the coil passes the neutral zone: Conductors in slot a are then moving toward the south pole and cut flux lines exiting from the rotor Conductors in slot b cut the flux lines entering the in slot b. This changes the polarity of the induced voltage in the coil. The voltage induced in a is now positive, and in b is negative. (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b) (b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

2.4 DC Generator Operation..contnd.
The simultaneously the commutator reverses its terminals, which assures that the output voltage (Vdc) polarity is unchanged. In Figure (b) the positive terminal is connected to commutator segment 1 and to the conductors in slot a. The negative terminal is connected to segment 2 and to the conductors in slot b. (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b) (b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

2.5 DC Machine Type There are generally five major types of DC motors:
The separately excited dc motor The shunt dc motor The permanent magnet dc motor The series dc motor The compounded dc motor

2.6 DC Machine Equivalent Circuit
The magnetic field produced by the stator poles induces a voltage in the rotor (or armature) coils when the generator is rotated. This induced voltage is represented by a voltage source. The stator coil has resistance, which is connected in series. The pole flux is produced by the DC excitation/field current, which is magnetically coupled to the rotor The field circuit has resistance and a source The voltage drop on the brushes represented by a battery

2.6 DC Machine Equ. Circuit..contnd.
Permanent magnet The poles are made of permanent magnets. No field winding required. Small size. Disadvantage is low flux density, so low torque.

2.6 DC Machine Equ. Circuit..contnd.
2. Separately excited The field flux is derived from a separate power source independent of the generator itself. B Field winding Armature winding

2.6 DC Machine Equ. Circuit..contnd.
3. Self-excited – shunt machine The field flux is derives by connecting the field directly across the terminals of the generator. B

2.6 DC Machine Equ. Circuit..contnd.
3. Self-excited - series machine field are connected in series with armature B

2.6 DC Machine Equ. Circuit..contnd.
Self-excited – Compounded dc motor both a shunt and a series field are present

2.6 DC Machine Equ. Circuit..contnd.
3. Self-excited Cumulatively compounded Differentially compounded B B

Equivalent Circuit of a DC Motor.
2.6 DC Machine Equ. Circuit..contnd. The armature is represented by an ideal voltage source EA and a resistor RA. The brush voltage drop is represented by a small battery Vbrush opposing the direction of the current flow in the machine. The field coils, which produce the magnetic flux, are represented by inductor LF and RF. The separate resistor Radj represents an external variable resistor used to control the amount of current in the field circuit. Equivalent Circuit of a DC Motor.

The brush drop voltage is often only a very tiny fraction of the generated voltage in the motor.
Therefore, in cases where it is not critical, the brush drop voltage may be left out or approximately included in the value of RA. Also, the internal resistance of the filed coils is sometimes lumped together with the variable resistor, and the total is called RF , Figure below. A Simplified Equivalent Circuit eliminating the Brush Voltage Drop and Combining Radj with the Field Resistance .

2.5 DC Machine Equ. Circuit..contnd.
The Equivalent Circuit of Separately Excited dc Motor. From the above figure,

Shunt DC motors The Equivalent Circuit of a Shunt dc Motor
From the above figure,

Torque Equation T = torque of armature (N-m) kA = geometry constant
= flux/pole (Wb) IA = armature current (A)

Geometry Constant p = number of field poles
N = number of active conductors on armature M = number of parallel paths in armature winding (=p for lap winding, =2 for wave winding)

Power Equation P=power (W) – not counting losses
E = EMF induced in armature (back EMF) IA = armature current (A) T = torque of armature (N-m) = speed of rotation (rad/s) Note that Pin = VLIL which will be higher than P because of loss in the field and armature windings as well as rotational (friction) losses.

EMF Equation E = EMF induced in armature (V) kA = geometry constant
= flux/pole (Wb)  = speed of rotation (rad/s) n = speed of rotation of armature (rpm)

Terminal Voltage Equation
VT + - RA VT = voltage at motor terminals E = EMF induced in armature (V) IA = armature current (A) RA = armature resistance

Speed Equation (applies to shunt connected motor only)
Note that  can also be written as kfIf where kf is /If (normally a constant ratio) Ratio Equation

Speed-Torque Speed Torque Differential Compound Shunt
Series Shunt Cumulative Compound Differential Compound

Example 1 A 6 pole, 3.0 hp 120V DC lap-wound shunt motor has 960 conductors in the armature. It takes 25.0 A from the supply at full load. Armature resistance is 0.75, flux/pole=10.0 mWb, field winding current is 1.20A. Find the speed and torque.

Example 2 A 10hp, 115V Dc series motor takes 40A at its full load speed of 1800rpm. What is the torque at 30A?

Example 3 (a) A 220V DC shunt motor draws 10A at 1800rpm. The armature
resistance is 0.2 and field winding resistance is 440. (a) What is the torque?

Example 3 (b) (shunt is constant speed)
A 220V DC shunt motor draws 10A at 1800rpm. The armature resistance is 0.2 and field winding resistance is 440. (b) What will be the speed and line current at a torque of 20 N-m (if field current is constant)? (shunt is constant speed)

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