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Chapter Five Sex and Your Body. Female Sex Organs 2 External Female Genitals (Vulva) External Female Genitals (Vulva) – Mons pubis – Labia majora – Labia.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Five Sex and Your Body. Female Sex Organs 2 External Female Genitals (Vulva) External Female Genitals (Vulva) – Mons pubis – Labia majora – Labia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Five Sex and Your Body

2 Female Sex Organs 2 External Female Genitals (Vulva) External Female Genitals (Vulva) – Mons pubis – Labia majora – Labia minora – Prepuce – Clitoris Internal Female Genitals Internal Female Genitals – Vagina – Uterus – Cervix – Ovaries – Fallopian tube

3 3 External Female Genitalia Labia Majora Labia Minora Prepuce Mons Pubis Urethral Opening Clitoris Vaginal Opening

4 Figure 5.1 The female sex organs 4

5 Male Sex Organs 5 Penis The glans Corpus spongiosum Urethra Scrotum Function: Allows for sperm development at a temperature cooler than the body (93.6 degrees F) Testes (with seminiferous tubules) Epididymis Vas deferens Prostate gland Cowper’s glands Seminal vesicles Circumcision

6 6 Male External Genitalia

7 Figure 5.2 The male sex organs 7

8 Hormones and The Reproductive Life Cycle 8 Sex Hormones – Adrenal cortex produces androgens = Sex hormones – Testes produce testosterone – Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone – Pituitary gland produces LH and FSH – Hypothalamus (controls the release of hormones from pituitary)

9 Differentiation of the Embryo 9 Determined by the fertilizing sperm at the time of conception – Conception - combining of 23 pairs of chromosomes Of the 23 pairs, one pair = sex chromosomes Egg carries an X sex chromosome Sperm carries either a X or Y chromosome XX provides the blueprint to produce a female XY provides the blueprint to produce a male

10 Female Sexual Maturation 10 Physical changes begins around 8-13 with breast development and rapid body growth between 9 and 15. The 4 Phases of the Menstrual Cycle – Menses Days 1-5 – Estrogenic phase Days 6-13 – Ovulation phase Day 14 – Progestational phase Days 15-27

11 11 Figure 5.4 The menstrual cycle

12 Menstrual Problems 12 Dysmenorrhea – Cramps, bloating, nausea associated with the menstrual cycle – Some symptoms caused from prostaglandins Premenstrual Tension (PT) Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) – Pharmacological treatment Lifestyle changes to reduce symptoms – Limit salt intake – Exercise – Don’t use alcohol or tobacco – Eat a nutritious diet – Relax

13 Male Sexual Maturation 13 Normally occurs 2 years later than girls Begins about 10 or 11 years old Physical changes – Testicular growth – Penis growth – Pubic hair growth – Voice deepens – Increase in height

14 Aging and Human Sexuality 14 Women: Menopause – Ovaries gradually cease functioning – Stop ovulating – Decreasing estrogen levels – Increased risk of disease Men – Gradual decrease of testosterone – Loss of energy/sex drive/stamina

15 Sexual Response Cycle 15 Four phases typically characterize the sexual response cycle: 1.Excitement phase Penis becomes erect, testes expand and pulled upward Clitoris, labia and vaginal walls also vasocongested, vaginal lubrication 2.Plateau phase Extension of excitement; everything becomes more pronounced than in excitement phase; male pre-ejaculatory emission 3.Orgasmic phase Rhythmic contractions along male duct system, expelling semen; contractions in vagina and uterus Males (refractory phase) 4.Resolution phase Reversal of excitement phase; all structures return to unstimulated state

16 1: Excitement phase Everything elevates!

17 1: Excitement Phase  Tenting = body of the uterus begins to ascend

18 2: Plateau Phase Pre-ejaculatory emission from Cowper’s gland

19 2: Plateau Phase

20 3: Orgasmic Phase

21 4: Resolution phase System returns to normal

22 Sexual Problems 22 Biological conditions affecting women: Vaginitis – Characterized by vaginal discharge, vaginal irritation, pain during intercourse Vaginismus – uncontrolled, involuntary spasm of the vagina muscles Endometriosis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – 50-75% of PID cases are caused by STDs Biological conditions affecting men: Prostatitis (acute vs. chronic) – Acute usually due to a bacterial/viral infection – inflammation of the prostate gland, often resulting in swelling or pain, urination problems, sexual dysfunction, etc. Testicular cancer – Most common in men in their twenties and thirties

23 Sexual Dysfunctions 23 Common sexual dysfunctions – Male – Erectile dysfunction Premature ejaculation Delayed ejaculation – Women – Orgasmic dysfunction Treatment – Physical examination – Pharmaceutical – Relaxation and massage techniques

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