Presentation on theme: "Evidence-based Practice Resources for HINARI Users (Module 7.2)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Evidence-based Practice Resources for HINARI Users (Module 7.2) This module explains why HINARI users might want to start by searching evidence-based resources and highlights HINARI, as well as, freely available resources that support evidence-based practice.
2 Evidence-based Practice Resources for HINARI Users Instructions - This part of the:course is a PowerPoint demonstration intended to introduce you to Evidence-based Practice and related HINARI resources.module is off-line and is intended as an information resource for reference use.
3 Table of Contents – Part A Evidence-based Medicine (EBM)DefinitionWhat, why and how of EBM5 step EBM process – ask, access, appraise, applyand accessLimitations of EBM
4 Table of Contents – Part B HINARI ResourcesClinical EvidenceCochrane LibraryEBM GuidelinesBMJ PracticeEssential Evidence PlusHINARI EBM Journals
5 Table of Contents – Part C Other (Internet) Resources:PubMed’s Clinical Queries and ‘Type of Article’ LimitsClinical Practice Guidelines – definition & examplesCochrane Library ‘Abstracts’PubMed Health – clinical effective researchTrip DatabaseEvidence Updates - BMJ and McMaster UniversityKnowledge Translation Learning Modules – Canadian Institutes of Health ResearchEssential Health Links gateway – annotated linksOther useful websites
6 Evidence-based Practice (EBP) Definition "Evidence-Based Practice requires that decisions about health care are based on the best available, current, valid and relevant evidence. These decisions should be made by those receiving care, informed by the tacit and explicit knowledge of those providing care, within the context of available resources."Sicily statement on evidence-based practice. BMC Medical Education, 2005 Jan 5;5(1):1
7 Patient Values/Local Conditions What is EBP?The integration of best evidence* from current research, patient preferences and values, and clinical expertise to clinical questions (Sackett, 2000) in a timely fashion.Best EvidenceClinical ExpertisePatient Values/Local ConditionsEBP*Best available evidence is: consistent research evidence with high quality and quantity
8 Why EBP? To improve care To bridge the gap between research & practice “Kill as few patients as possible” (O. London)A new treatment might have fewer side effects.A new treatment could be cheaper or less invasiveA new treatment may be necessary in case people develop resistance to existing therapies, etc.To keep knowledge and skills current (continuing education)To save time to find the best information
9 How does EBP help?A patient comes to a clinic with a fresh dog bite. It looks clean and the nurse and patient wonder if prophylactic antibiotics are necessary. The nurse searches PubMed and found a meta analysis indicating that the average infection rate for dog bites was 14% and that antibiotics halved this risk to 7%.For every 100 people with dog bites, treatment with antibiotics will save 7 from infectionTreating 14 (NNT) people with dog bites will prevent 1 infectionYou explain these numbers to the patient along with possibleconsequences and patient decides not to take antibiotics.On a follow up visit you find out that he did not get infected.Glasziou P, Del Mar C, Salisbury J. EBP Workbook, 2nd. ed. BMJ Books, 2007.
10 What are some Barriers for EBP? Overuse, underuse, misuse of evidenceTime, effort, & skill neededAccess to evidenceIntimidation by senior cliniciansEnvironment not supportive of EBPPoor decision making
11 The 5 Step EBP ProcessASK: Formulate an answerable clinical questionACCESS: Track down the bestEvidence3. APPRAISE: Appraise the evidence for its validity and usefulness4. APPLY: Integrate the results with your clinical expertise and your patient values/local conditionsASSESS: Evaluate the effectiveness of the processAskAccessAppraiseApplyAssess
12 Step 1: ASK a focused (answerable) clinical question Background questions (What do I know about this?)Foreground (Clinical) Questions P = Patient, population or problem (Who are the patients or populations? What is the disease?)I = Intervention (What do you want to do with this patient (e.g. treat, diagnose, observe)? C = Comparison intervention (What is the alternative to the intervention (e.g. placebo, different drug, nothing?)O = Outcome (What are the relevant outcomes (e.g. morbidity, mortality, death, complications)?Good questions are the backbone of EBM practicing. It is important to use all parts of the question if possible when you are building the question.Patient specific, real patient related outcomesMorbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of populationMortality: All deaths reported in a given population. Statistical Term
13 Why should I use PICO?To help define problem in clarify it in your own mindTo prepare for searchingTo ask patient centered questions. Treatment of Pneumococcal Pneumonia SHOULD be different forTerminal Cancer PatientElderly, Severely Demented PatientYoung, mother of 2 childrenDeveloping the question requires:Some background knowledge of the conditionUnderstanding of the patient and what are the outcomes and beliefs that matter to this patientDeath? Disability? Quality of life? Cost? Improvement of symptoms?
14 Example: Intervention Questions Identify background questions, create a PICO and a focused clinical question for this case:54 year old male patient was diagnosed with intermediate grade prostate cancer and wants to know whether to get a radical prostatectomy or radiation treatment. He is concerned about death from prostate cancer and also risks of impotence and incontinence.
15 Formulate the Clinical Question PICO P - 54 year old male with intermediate grade prostate cancerI - radical prostatectomyC- radiation treatmentO- reduce risk of mortality, impotence, and incontinenceFocused clinical question In 54 year old male patients with intermediate grade prostate cancer is radical prostatectomy more effective compared to radiation treatment in reducing the risk of mortality, impotence, and incontinence?
16 EBP Step 1a: Classify the type of the question What is the treatment? Question of INTERVENTION/PREVENTIONWhat causes the problem? Question of ETIOLOGY, RISKDoes this person have the problem? Question of DIAGNOSISWho (and how likely) will get the problem? Question of PROGNOSISPhenomena – Can relate to any category questions (diagnosis, treatment…) only involves a population (P) or an outcome (O) the outcome is a broad category (ideas, beliefs, concerns) e.g, For mothers of children with a fever what are the principle concerns?
17 Etiology and Risk Questions What causes a disease or health condition? The reverse of intervention questions-they deal with harmful outcomes of an activity or exposure (public health issues)Develop a clinical question for the case:S. is a smoker and just found out that she is 3 months pregnant. She quit smoking immediately. But she is worried if her developing baby was harmed and if the baby is at risk for having developmental problems. She is asking you if smoking during the first trimester can harm her baby?-e.g. if eating certain foods increases the risk of heart disease; or smoking increases the risk of cancer)
18 Etiology or Risk Questions P-babies of mothers who smokeI-smoking in first trimesterC-nothingO-increase risk of developmental problemsQuestion: Are babies of mothers who smoke during their first trimester at an increased risk of developmental disabilities?
19 Diagnosis QuestionsThese questions are concerned with how accurate a diagnostic test is in various groups and in comparison to other tests or usually to a “gold standard test”.As part of your clinic assessment of elderly patients, there is a hearing check. You think that a simple whispered voice test is very accurate compared to other methods. You want to do a literature search. What is your question? (1)Glasziou P, Del Mar C, Salisbury J. EBP Workbook, 2nd. ed. BMJ Books, 2007.
20 Example P-elderly people I-whispered voice test C-no test (or other tests)O-accurate diagnosis of hearing problemsQuestion: In elderly people, does the whispered voice compared to other tests give an accurate diagnosis of hearing problems?Glasziou P, Del Mar C, Salisbury J. EBP Workbook, 2nd. ed. BMJ Books, 2007.
21 Templates for EBP Questions For a therapy: In _______(P), what is the effect of _______(I) on ______(O) compared with _______(C)?For etiology: Are ____ (P) who have _______ (I) at ___ (Increased/decreased) risk for/of_______ (O) compared with ______ (P) with/without ______ (C)?Diagnosis or diagnostic test: Are (is) _________ (I) more accurate in diagnosing ________ (P) compared with ______ (C) for _______ (O)?Prevention: For ________ (P) does the use of ______ (I) reduce the future risk of ________ (O) compared with _________ (C)?Prognosis: Does __________ (I) influence ________ (O) in patients who have _______ (P)?Melnyk B. & Fineout-Overholt E. (2005). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
22 EBP Step1b:Decide on the best type of study for question For each type of question there is a hierarchy of evidenceTherapy/Prevention What should I do about this problem?RCT>cohort > case control > case seriesDiagnosis Does this person have the problem?cross-sectional study with blind comparison to a gold standardEtiology/Harm What causes the problem?RCT > cohort > case control > case seriesPrognosis/Prediction Who will get the problem?RCT >cohort study > case control > case seriesFrequency and RateHow common is the problem?cohort study > cross-sectional studyPhenomena – Can relate to any category questions (diagnosis, treatment…) only involves a population (P) or an outcome (O) the outcome is a broad category (ideas, beliefs, concerns) e.g, For mothers of children with a fever what are the principle concerns?NOTE: A well designed systematic review of RCTS (randomized controlled trials) is best as it is least biased therefore more valid.
23 Hierarchy of Study Designs for Intervention LeastBiasRandomized Controlled TrialCohort StudiesCase-Controlled StudiesMostCase reports/Clinical ObservationsExperimentalObservationalObservationalObservationalTo recognize the type of study ask the questions:Is intervention randomly assigned? Yes-RCT; No-Observational studyWhen were the outcomes determined?After the exposure-cohort study (prospective study)During the exposure-cross-sectional studyBefore the exposure-case-control study (retrospective study based on recall)
25 EBP Step 2: ACCESS Track Down the Best Evidence Start “hunting” from the best resource: Match your question to the best medical information resource for this question.Well designed Systematic Reviews¹ can be a great place to start they contain commentary about validity ¹A systematic review involves the application of scientific strategies, in ways that limit bias, to the assembly, critical appraisal, and synthesis of all relevant studies that address a specific clinical question.Cook DJ, Mulrow CD, Haynes RB. Annals of Internal Medicine March 1, 1997; 126 (5) 376.
26 Hierarchy of Evidence- Access evidence at the level that will give you the best evidence Track DownFiltered & Critically AppraisedThis model suggests that you start your search at the top of the pyramid with systematic reviews from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Cochrane is small in the amount of information it currently contains, making it easier to search, but large in the validity and relevance of the information it contains for answering therapeutic questions.Depending on the success of your search in Cochrane, you would work your way down the pyramid of resources in order of decreasing relevance/validity and increasing work, until you find an answer.Journal articles form the base of the pyramid because they represent large amounts of "unrefined" information, and the burden of determining the validity and relevance is up to the user. The work part of the "Usefulness Equation" is also very high for journal articles as it may require a lengthy MEDLINE database search to locate them.Expert Opinion and Not FilteredBackground info.Most clinically relevant (at the top) Least clinically relevant (at the bottom)
27 Why not get info only from textbooks and review articles? Texts and review articles?Dated – perhaps by several yearsOften biasedAuthor chooses article that he/she agrees with (or has written)Author chooses articles of his/her friendsAuthor does not identify all the relevant literatureReview’s methods are not explainedThese resources help with background knowledge (learn about disease) not foreground (answer the specific clinical question for this patient)
28 Why not get info only from guidelines? They can assure standards of care but:Can be biasedMay not always be developed by experienced expertsAre not always evidence-basedCan work for most patients but not for allCan work in some circumstances but not in allCan be datedThere may not be guidelines for everything
29 Filtered and Critically Appraised Evidence-Based Resources The Cochrane Library by The Cochrane Collaboration via WileyIndependent non-for-profit international collaborationReviews are among the studies of highest scientific evidenceMinimum Bias: Evidence is included/excluded on the basis of explicit quality criteriaReviews involve exhaustive searches for all RCT, both published and unpublished, on a particular topicAbstracts searchable for free on the Internet; complete database is available via HINARI for most countries1995-
30 Benefits for using not-evaluated databases for EBM research (PubMed, Cinahl) Create comprehensive search strategiesConduct systematic reviews of the literatureConduct synonym searching utilizing thesauriSet up and distribute alerts relating to evidence-based medicineLimit to specific populations & publication typesUtilize EBM built-in filters (search strategies)
31 EBP Step 3: Appraise: Determine if the results are valid and useful Appraisal principles (primary and secondary research)What is the PICO of the study? Does it match my question?How well was the study done? Is it biased?What do the results mean? Are they real and relevant?More: University of Oxford’s Center of EBM:Tools for evaluating studies can be found in the Evaluating the Evidence section in the EBM tutorial at:
32 ApplyEBP Step 4: APPLY: Integrate the results with your clinical expertise and your patient valuesQuestion to ask:Is the intervention feasible in my settings?What alternatives are available?Is my patient so different then those in the study that the results cannot apply ?Will the potential benefits outweigh the potential harms of treatment ?What does my patient think? What are his cultural beliefs?Individual decision making/group decision making/choiceExplaining risks and benefits to patients:Visual Rx:
33 AssessEBP Step 5: ASSESS Evaluate the effectiveness of the process. How am I doing?Am I asking questions?Am I writing down my information needs?What is my success rate in the EBM steps?How is my searching going? Am I becoming more efficient?Am I periodically syncing (checking) my skills and knowledge with new developments?Teach others EBP skillsKeep a record of your questions
34 Limitations of EBP Limited scope of evidence-it will never be complete The quality of research availableKeeping it patient centered, cost effectiveEvidence from Randomized Controlled Trials for real life patientsCommunicating uncertaintiesDecision making