Presentation on theme: "Contracting for Services Krishan Batra Senior Advisor UNDP, New York."— Presentation transcript:
Contracting for Services Krishan Batra Senior Advisor UNDP, New York
Learning Objectives Procurement Principles Methods of Contracting How to write SOW/TOR Writing an effective RFP Evaluation of Proposals Types of Contracts Contract Management
Procurement Facts: Year 2004 Total Procurement by HQ : $ 112 m Total Procurement by UNDP: $ 1120 m Contracting for Services: Nearly 80% of total procurement. Type of Services*: IT, Feasibility Studies, Experts, Building Management, Printing, Design, etc. * does not include Employment Contracts for individuals
Contracting Principles: Best Value for Money Fairness, Integrity and Transparency Effective International Competition The Interest of UNDP Procurement Authority: Contracting authority delegated to the CPO. CPO delegates to RRs and Unit Heads. CPO establishes necessary controls.
Purchase Order vs. Contract: Why a Purchase Order or Contract Order or Purchase Agreement or Supplies Order or sometimes just plain a Contract? Why does the paperwork vary depending on the type of agreement I engage in? When purchasing of an off the shelf item or where risks are low – use a PO. Where complex services or goods with high risk are sought – use a Contract.
Contracting Strategy: Contract amount less than $2,500: assess the price Purchasing Card (however, not for assets) Contract amount between $2,500 and $30,000: obtain a minimum of three offers informal process award contract to the lowest evaluated bidder
Contracting Strategy: Contract amount between $30,000 and $100,000: obtain a minimum of three international offers informal process award contract to the lowest evaluated bidder Contract amount exceeds $100,000: informal process: Request for Proposal (RFP) evaluate the technical proposals evaluate the financial proposals award as per instruction
Single Source Selection: Does not provide the benefits of competition in regard to quality and cost Lacks transparency Encourages unacceptable practices Justification should address economy Continuity downstream Justified in the case of low value
Single Source Selection: No competitive market-place: Monopoly Standardization Result of a cooperation with others Offers have been obtained for identical Solicitation outcome not satisfactory Purchase or lease of real property Genuine exigency Can not be objectively evaluated
Designing an Effective RFP: Never tell people how to do things. Tell them what you want to achieve and they will surprise you with their ingenuity
Why an RFP? In competitive contracting, there are two methods: ITB or a RFP. ITB is used when goods or service is well defined and can be specified in detail. Selection is made solely on the basis of cost. RFP is a negotiated procurement process and provides flexibility to the contractor and the company.
Basic Elements of an RFP: Statement of Purpose: the nature of the services to be provided and the overall objectives of the contract. Background Information: overview of the program, statistics, existing facilities, an honest accounting of current problems and strengths. Service Specification: sets out in specific and measurable terms the services required.
Basic Elements of an RFP: How they are to be delivered and the duration they are required. Performance Standards: minimum standards and method of monitoring Instructions to the Offerors General Terms and Conditions Special Terms and Conditions Evaluation and award process
Instructions to Offerors: Purpose: establish the parameters of the contest When and where offers should be made The form and language to be used Deadline date of receipt Validity period of offer Currency Criteria for evaluation Contact person(s)
Outline of SOW/TOR Background Outputs/ deliverables desired Inputs to be provided Schedule of completion Standards by which to measure performance Other Issues: Use active verbs (i.e., avoid should or may). Use shall for the Contractor and will for UNDP.
Checklist for IT Contracts: Rights granted under license Terms of License Scope of License Right to source code Ownership of the software Payment Provision Acceptance Procedure Training Warranties Maintenance Termination Governing Law
Evaluating Proposals The Written Proposal Is the proposal easily understood? Is it relevant to your project? Are the consultant deliverables stated? Have you checked any of the references listed? The Consulting Firm How long has the firm been in business? How many professional consultants on staff? Obtain CVs of the consultants assigned to your project
Evaluating Proposals The Fee Structure Is the fee structure specified? Is the stated fee fair? Are the payment terms fair?
Evaluating Proposals Ground Rules Offerors identities, proposal contents shall be treated with discretion Is the stated fee fair? Technical evaluators shall not discuss any aspects of the proceedings with anyone not designated a technical evaluator Do not discuss any details regarding the number of proposals, their ranking etc. Refer any attempted communication by the Offerors to the Contracting Officer. If additional information is needed, the question shall be submitted to the Contracting Officer.
Tendering:Ten Commandments Suitable Package Early Warning Non-Discrimination Accessibility Neutrality Formality Confidentiality Consistency Objectivity No negotiations prior to award
Best Value: Tradeoffs are necessary when no single option is best on all evaluation factors- e.g best technically and also lowest priced. The need to have tradeoffs is a consequence of having multiple evaluation factors. Life cycle cost
Conducting Negotiations: Satisfy each others needs Identify differences Conceal ones own position Discover the opponents position Generate multiple options Understand the bottom line Dont try to go it alone Formality
Types of Contracts: Fixed Price Contract: used if it is possible to determine the quantity of services Unit Price Contract (T&M): used if it is difficult to determine with accuracy the requirements. In this case the contract sets an amount not to exceed Reimbursable Loan Agreement Other Issues In case of joint proposal, contract with lead entity Rates over long period Completion date Currency
Contract Management: Monitoring the Contract: Delivery Making Payments Certification Payment unit for processing Contract Amendments: 20% or up to $100,000, whichever is less Disputes and Claims: forward to OLPS Termination of the Contracts
ACP: Scope of Review 1. Procurement Process: Transparency, Method 2. Specifications/TOR/ Quality 3. Availability of Funds 4. Value for Money/ cost details/ consulting Fee 5. Evaluation Modality 6. Performance Security/ Warranty 7. Shipping/ Insurance 8. Licensing/copyrights 9. Use of LTA 10. Type of Contracts