2 Key Topics Intellectual Property – definition Copyright & Creative CommonsAuthor Rights & Open AccessPlagiarism – background, guidelines and examples
3 Current Reserch Environment ‘Academic/research institutions reward those with the longest CVs and the most publications. Under pressure to generate voluminous output, scientists often fall prey to double publishing, self plagiarism, and submitting the minimal publishable unit. Are these ethical gray areas, or true transgressions?’Executive Editor Clin Invest (7): 2368
4 Definition –Intellectual Property WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.
5 Intellectual Property is divided into two categories: Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of sourceCopyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. Rights related to copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programs(accessed 14 Mar 2011)
6 Copyright & Creative Commons: Author rights vs. Publisher requirements
7 Basic facts authors need to know Copyright protection is automatic once a work is fixed in a tangible mediumJoint authors each have full and equal copyrightsCopyright can be transferred only in writingNot all rights have to be given away – author/copyright rights can be broken apart
8 Author’s rightsCopyright is a “bundle” of rights and these exclusive rights include:reproduce the work in copiesdistribute copies of the workpublicly display or performmake derivatives, adaptations, translationsauthorize others to use any of these rights
9 Author options Transfer all rights to publisher (traditional) Author no longer has control over workLicensing (Creative Commons)Enables the copyright holder, whether author or publisher, to license partial rights to other partiesAddenda (SPARC, Science Commons, CIC)Added to copyright transfer agreements and refer the desired rights to the author.Leads to negotiations between author and publisher
10 Authors needs: anticipate future uses of your work Share work with colleaguesDistribute at conferencesSelf-publish (personal website, CM, CV)Link to the full-text from your websiteSubmit to an open access repositoryRepublish; adaptation; translationUse in classUse in coursepacks
11 Publishers requirements: Publishers want traditional contractsReproductionDistributionDerivativesEditorial controlDigital archivingFormat changes
12 Copyright & R4L E-journals Electronic journals are protected by copyright law in the same way as printed journalsTheir use is subject to the terms of a license agreed between the institution and the publisher which permits certain activities and forbids othersFor the Research4Life programs, users can copy up to 15% of a journal issue, distribute to colleagues within the institution and use for educational purposesUsers cannot distribute copies to individuals outside the institution, change the content, load material on a publically accessible server or use for profitSee HINARI ‘Do’s and Don’ts’ document for further details
13 If…then – basics of reuse By the authorIf full rights retained, then limitless (within the law.)If some rights retained, then within limits of negotiated rights.If no rights retained, then fair use or permission.By othersIf published open access, then freely accessible.If published under a Creative Commons license, then within limits defined by the license.If published traditionally, then fair use or permission.
14 Authors - Where to begin? Know what rights you want to retain.Identify a publisher that allows author’s to retain most rights.READ THE PUBLISHERS AGREEMENT!Include an Addenda to the publisher agreement.Opt to publish in an Open Access journal and use various licensing resources, such as Creative Commons.Examples:Science Commons: Scholars Addendum EngineSPARC Author AddendumUniversity of Michigan Authors AddendumMIT Faculty Open Access Policy
15 Creative Commons (new licensing model) What it is and how it benefits teaching and research
16 A solution to a copyright problem Copyright is automaticNo opt inNo opt outCopyright is restrictiveRights belong ONLY to the authorCan be transferred or sharedBut for mass distribution online? How?
17 Licenses and Marks The license is a contract How do we transfer copyright rights?How do we give or get permission?Creative Commons is a set of licenses (a type of contract) with standard terms, for permission to copy/share/modify copyrighted workThe mark is a standard symbol that content consumers can recognize and trust
18 The Licenses: Four Conditions Attribution – the license lets others distribute, remix, tweak and build upon the work, even commercially as long as credit is given to the original creation (most accommodating/maximum dissemination)Noncommercial – this license allows others to remix, tweak and build upon the work non-commercially; new work must acknowledge and be non-commercial
19 No Derivative Works – this license allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole with credit to the creator.Share Alike – this license lets others remix, tweak or build upon original work (even for commercial use) as long as there is credit and it is licensed as a new creation under same terms (used for open source software licenses).
20 Six Combinations Attribution Attribution – ShareAlike Attribution – No DerivativesAttribution – NoncommercialAttribution – Noncommercial – ShareAlikeAttribution – Noncommercial – No Derivatives(Accessed 14 March 2011)
21 The Benefits: Using CC-licensed works TeachingIn classroom face-to-faceOnline course developmentCourse materialsCreative worksNo-risk use of images, music, text, film, etc. to inspire/build upon/mashup into new creationsResearchSame as above
22 Licensing your own works Creative Commons web siteChoose a license based on what you want to allow users to doRegistration process – there is none!Display the mark and link to the license text
23 Outcomes Creative Commons licensing benefits everyone Content providersContent consumersTeachers/researchersAuthors can retain rights (to copy, share, modify, etc.) in publishing contracts
24 Plagiarism: What is it? What does it look like? How to avoid it. Z6njI/AAAAAAAAAG0/CLqjRDQF0cg/s320/plagiarism600pxw.jpg (accessed 21 August 2009)
25 Types of Plagiarism Stealing - This is exactly what it sounds like! If you take a sentence, or even a unique turn of phrase, and pass it off as your own, this is stealing.Patchworking - Using words and phrases from a source text (that may or may not be acknowledged), and patching them together into new sentences.Insufficient Paraphrasing - Taking an author's words and changing them slightly, without quoting the actual text is plagiarism. Say it entirely in your own words, otherwise put the author's text in quotes and reference the source.
26 Misquoting - When you quote another author in your own work, always be sure to quote exactly what was said. Direct quotes are when you use an author's exact words. Indirect quotes are when you report the spoken or written words of an author, but not his/her exact words. Both must be cited!!Duplicating Publications - You can not reuse/recycle your own paper for use in another assignment without explicit permission from the instructor. If you cite your previous works, remember to cite yourself!
27 ScenariosI combined the findings of these 8 sources into one paragraph. I don’t have to cite them, because I created the compilation.I submitted the same paper to more than one class. It’s OK that I copied my own work without citing it because it’s still my idea.I copied someone else’s work, but I didn’t use quotation marks because I changed a few words.Identify the type of plagiarism
28 And…… I removed some data points to make my results look better. I didn’t collect enough data from my experiment so I used a computer program to generate data points.My advisor used my data without giving me credit.I quoted something but changed one word to strengthen its support of my argument.Identify the type of plagiarism
29 A Case Study‘May is a second-year graduate student preparing the written portion of her qualifying exam. She incorporates whole sentences and paragraphs verbatim from several published papers. She does not use quotation marks, but the sources are suggested by statements like (see for more details).Additionally, the faculty on the qualifying exam committee note inconsistencies in the writing styles of different paragraphs of the text and check the sources.’What are the signs of plagiarism in this case?What about the authors’ works from which are copied without credit? Is it fair? Is it ethical?Adapted from ‘On Being a Scientist’ p. 18(accessed 21 August 2009)
30 Common mistakesCut & paste from electronic/Internet sources without using quotes or properly citing the sourceDownload audio, visual, or arts without proper permission (Copyright issues)Cite statistics/facts without the source, unless they are common knowledge
31 Basic guidelines to avoid plagiarism If you use four lines, block quote indented 1” or 2.5 CM from each margin and cite sourceEven if you don’t use words verbatim, you must cite if you use the author’s ideasIf you reference a scientific concept that is not commonly known, cite the sourceYou do not need to cite if you are using universally understood concepts or common knowledgeWhen in doubt, CITEAdapted in part from PLAGIARISM. What is it? (Accessed 08 June 2009)
32 Is it plagiarism or is it cultural? ‘In some Asian cultures, students are taught to memorize and copy well-respected authors and leaders in their societies to show intelligence and good judgment in writing.’ (Thompson, L. C., & Williams, P. G. (1995). Plagiarism in the ESL classroom. Clearing House, 69(1), 27-29)‘What is defined as plagiarism by American standards is not defined as such by many Asian or European standards, in which… Taking ideas and words from different books and writers to build an answer seems to be an accepted academic practice.’ (Pennycook, A. (1996). Borrowing others' words: Text, ownership, memory, and plagiarism. TESOL Quarterly, 30(2), )‘In India, for example, undergraduates are not expected to cite sources and it is only at the graduate level where such activity is expected, but not necessary.’ (Handa, N., & Power, C. (2005). Land and discover! A case study investigating the cultural context of plagiarism. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 2(3), Retrieved from-Thompson, L. C., & Williams, P. G. (1995). But I changed three words! plagiarism in the ESL classroom. Clearing House, 69(1),-Pennycook, A. (1996). Borrowing others' words: Text, ownership, memory, and plagiarism. TESOL Quarterly, 30(2),-Handa, N., & Power, C. (2005). Land and discover! A case study investigating the cultural context of plagiarism. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 2(3), Retrieved from
33 Plagiarism in the Sciences (Top 3) Making up data or results (fabrication)Changing or misreporting data or results (falsification)Using the ideas or words of another person without giving appropriate credit (plagiarism)From National Academy of Sciences (U.S.), & NetLibrary, Inc. (1995). On being a scientist: responsible conduct in research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, p.16.
34 http://www. neiu. edu/~ejhowens/plagiarism/plagiarism (accessed 21 August 2009)
35 How is Plagiarism Investigated? (accessed 24 August 2009)
36 What does plagiarism look like? NY Times, Oct. 3, 2004: Spin City (original)‘From the vantage point of a bike, the city presents itself as a savorable panorama passing by at a speed somewhere between the blur outside a car window and the plodding pace of walking.’Gazette, July 2, 2009: Bicycle safety a hit-or-miss proposition in Springs (plagiarized sentence)‘From the vantage point of a bicycle, the city presents itself as a panorama passing by at a speed somewhere between the blur outside a car window and the plodding pace of walking.’(accessed 20 August 2009)
37 What does plagiarism look like? NY Times, April 26, 1987: New Zealanders thrive on U.S. sheep shearing (original)‘With a heave, John Burt pulled the sheep on its back and pinned it between his legs. Then, reaching for his clippers, he went to work.’Gazette, June 6, 2009: It's time for Colorado's sheep to get a trim (plagiarized sentences)‘With a little persuasion, Bob Schroth pulled the sheep onto its back and pinned it between his legs. Then, reaching for his clippers, he went to work.’(accessed 20 August 2009)
38 What does plagiarism look like? William Meehan’s dissertation. Highlights are copied verbatim from Carl Boening’s dissertation.On Vizworld(accessed 05 August 2009)
39 German defense minister accused of plagiarism German defense minister accused of plagiarism. Individual resigned position - 01 March 2011.BBC News Europe(18(Accessed 18 February 2011)
41 Plagiarism ResourcesDuke University Libraries: Citing Sources and Avoiding PlagiarismDePauw University: Avoiding PlagiarismUniversity of California/Davis: Avoiding PlagiarismUniversity of North Carolina/Chapel Hill: Plagiarism
42 Resources - International WIPO: World Intellectual Property OrganizationIncludes sections on:Copyright and Related RightsWIPO Intellectual Property Handbook: Policy, Law and UseWIPO Administrative TreatiesFrequently Asked Questions
43 Online Tutorials Acadia University: ‘You Quote it, you note it!’ Indiana University: How to Recognize Plagiarismhttps://www.indiana.edu/~istd/
44 Attributions Module adapted from material originally developed by: Michelle Foss Leonard Science & Technology Librarian Marston Science Library, University of Florida Attributions for Open Access & Creative Commons:Molly Keener for the ACRL Workshop “Scholarly Communication 101: Starting with the Basics” May 8, 2009ACRL Scholarly Communications ToolkitMichelle Foss Leonard, Elizabeth Outler, UF Open Access Week 2009
45 Hands On ActivitiesWe now will proceed to the ‘Hands On Activities’ for the Intellectual Property module.Last Updated(accessed 21 August 2009)