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Framework for Assessing Health Governance in Developing Countries: Gateway to Good Governance Siddiqi S; Masud T I; Nishtar S; Sabri B Health System Metrics.

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Presentation on theme: "Framework for Assessing Health Governance in Developing Countries: Gateway to Good Governance Siddiqi S; Masud T I; Nishtar S; Sabri B Health System Metrics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Framework for Assessing Health Governance in Developing Countries: Gateway to Good Governance Siddiqi S; Masud T I; Nishtar S; Sabri B Health System Metrics Technical Meeting September 28-29, 2006 Montreux-Glion Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo

2 2 Governance Defined The exercise of political, economic and administrative authority in the management of a countrys affairs at all levels. Comprises complex mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, mediate their differences and exercise their legal rights and obligations (UNDP 1997)

3 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 3 Frameworks for the Analysis of Governance WHOs domains of stewardship; PAHOs Essential Public Health Functions; World Banks six Basic Aspects of Governance; UNDPs Principles of Good Governance

4 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 4 WHOs Domains of Stewardship Generation of intelligence Formulating strategic policy direction Ensuring tools for implementation: powers, incentives and sanctions Building coalition / building partnership Ensuring a fit between policy objectives and organizational structure and culture Ensuring accountability (Travis et al 2001)

5 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 5 PAHOs Essential Public Health Functions Monitoring evaluation and analysis of the health situation Public health surveillance, research and control of risks Health promotion Social participation in health Policies and institutional capacity for planning and management Strengthening institutional capacity for regulation and enforcement Evaluation and promotion of equitable access to health services Human resource development and training Quality assurance in personal and population-based health services Research in public health Reducing impact of emergencies and disasters on health ( PAHO 2002)

6 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 6 World Banks Governance Indicators Process by which those in authority are selected and replaced Voice and Accountability Political Instability and Violence Ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies Government Effectiveness Regulatory Burden Respect of citizens and the state for institutions which govern their interaction Rule of Law Graft (control of corruption) (Kaufmann 1999)

7 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 7 UNDPs Five Principles of Good Governance PrinciplesThematic areas Legitimacy and voice Participation Consensus orientation Direction Strategic vision Performance Responsiveness Effectiveness and efficiency Accountability Transparency Fairness Equity and inclusiveness Rule of law (UNDP 1997)

8 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 8 Contemporary Issues in the Governance of Health Systems Role of the state vs. the market in health Role of the ministries of health vs. other state ministries Actors in Governance – public sector, civil society and the private sector Static vs. dynamic health systems Health Reform vs. Human Rights-based approach to health

9 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 9 Why the term –Governance? Governance is better understood by those within the health system and those outside; International development agencies have delineated the principles of governance that are well understood Performance of the health system is dependent on overall governance of a country

10 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 10 Health Governance Principles Strategic vision Participation and consensus orientation Rule of law Transparency Responsiveness Equity and inclusiveness Effectiveness and efficiency Accountability Information and intelligence Ethics

11 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 11 Health Governance Analytical Framework Governance principle Domain Broad question Specific questions / item Level of Assessment National MOH Policy MOH Implementation

12 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 12 Analytical Framework for Assessing Strategic Vision Governance principle - Strategic Vision Domain - Long term vision Broad QuestionSpecific Question National level What are the broad outlines of economic policy of the government; Where does health rank in the overall development framework by resource allocation, and as percentage of total government expenditure MOH policy level Whether there is a long term vision (policy) for health; Is there a national health policy/strategic plan available stating objectives, strategies with a time frame and resources allocated MOH implementation level Whether the implementation mechanisms are in line with the stated objectives of health policy What priority programs are being implemented and how do they correspond to the policy objectives

13 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 13 Data Collection and Sources of Information Documents National budget document, report of the treasury, state bank, Reports of ministry of economics, national statistical organizations Policy documents from MoH, analysis by international and NGOs MoH policy/ implementation reports, media reports, external reviews Health budget reports, budget speeches Reviews of the health legislative process National information policy MoH policy/ implementation reports, Media reports, external reviews of health policy PRSP documents MoH contracting manual, rules and procedures for civil servants National statistical reports, national health reports Interviews National and MOH policymakers, Mid- and senior managerial staff of the MOH or its component departments, Civil society organizations International development agencies, Academic institutions, Media personnel and Direct community representatives

14 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 14 Applying the Health Governance Framework in a Country Setting Health governance map of Pakistan – Strengths Central level Social safety nets for the poor and vulnerable; Increasing role of the media and NGOs in protecting peoples health. MOH policy level Preparation of draft bills to update health legislation; Emerging role of the Pakistan health policy forum as a civil society organization; Stable turnover of health policymakers during the last six years are positive elements MOH implementation level Increasing public-private interaction Preventive programs, especially the LHW Program which has a strong community as well as an equity dimension

15 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 15 Health governance map of Pakistan – Weaknesses Central level Lack of participatory decision making and culture of accountability; Parallel streams of bureaucracy and technocracy do not work in unison Adherence to rules and procedures is considered as an end; Lack of consumer protection act delays or deny justice MOH policy level Short-term objectives override the need for focus on health outcomes; Health equity is not high on the policy agenda; Mechanisms to monitor transparency of decisions do not exist; Decisions often tinged with personal preferences, not evidence-based; Legislation on minimum standards of care is absent with lax regulation and enforcement capacity; Policy, planning, health information and surveillance units are weak; Delays in release and utilization of funds; Accountability systems focus on procedure instead of performance; Bioethics is not on the policy radar of MOH.

16 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 16 Health governance map of Pakistan – Weaknesses MOH implementation level Minimal protection against hazards from personal health services; Gaps exist in policy and practice for recruitment, posting and promotion of staff and rules favor seniority over meritocracy; Instruments for evaluation of staff performance are improperly used; Responsiveness of public sector health services is not monitored; Physicians turned managers lack understanding of administrative matters while bureaucrats lack health orientation; Physicians and allied staff extensively engage in private practice outside and often within public institutions; Support systems function inefficiently; Code of ethics exists with the professional associations but not practiced.

17 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 17 Appraisal of the Framework Can health governance be improved without addressing overall governance of a country? Health system reforms versus broader civil service reforms Health governance assessment framework relies on qualitative approach and does not follow a scoring or ranking system retains the richness of information collected development of a scoring system is not precluded Does the assessment framework allow for cross-country comparison of the governance function? A health governance map can be developed for each country Contemporary issues in relation to health governance included Flexibility in the framework to integrate newer ones as they emerge Health governance framework does not cover global health governance clinical governance

18 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 18 Policy Implications of Assessing Health Governance Raises awareness among policymakers about governance as a function of the health system Provides an avenue for debate on a subject that is often pushed under the carpet Assesses each governance principle and allows developing interventions to address them Governance issues identified at three levels, allowing for measures at each Improving health governance requires political commitment as well as financial resources

19 Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo 19 Thank you


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