4 smallest distinctive sound unit in language Language: StructurePhonemesMorphemessmallest distinctive sound unit in languageex: ch (chug) vs th (thug)Example:how many phonemes and morphemes are in the word “cats”Phonemes: Morphemes:4: C, A, T, S2: CAT, Ssmallest unit of language that carries meaningex: prefixes (pre-) or suffixes (-ed)
5 system of rules that allows us to understand one another Grammarsystem of rules that allows us to understand one anotherSemanticsex:Syntaxex:rules to derive meaning from morphemes, words, sentencesrules we use to order words into sentencesadding -ed to laugh means that it happened in the past(lang. dependent) adjectives before nouns: White House instead of Casa Blanca
6 Context is important. gun binoculars The spy sees the police officer with the ______________The spy sees the police officer with the _______________binoculars
8 Language: Development Stage 1: Babbling124 months10 months3Babbling: random noises of all languages - can hear differences between noises45678babbling shifts towards native language - only uses sounds that baby hears91011
9 Whole Object Constraint Stage 2: One word12 months18 monthsOver ExtensionUnder ExtensionWhole Object Constraint121314151617181911first word - one word means a sentenceword concept is too narrow“dog” = only my dog, and no otherword concept is too broad“dog” = all dogs in the worldword explosion - 20 per weekassumption that word applies to entire object, rather than quality or part (pencil example)
10 Stage 3: Two Word (telegraphic) 20212223242526271924 monthsfollows rules of syntax… ish
11 Twin Languages Cryptophasia or idioglossia = “secret twin language” Considering how much time twins spend together, how do you think this happens?
13 Language: Acquisition Theories SkinnerOperant Learningassociation:Imitation:reinforcement:ChomskyInborn Universal Grammarlanguage acquisition device:Universal grammar:language development is all about simple learning principlesGiven adequate nurture, language develops naturallyour brain is designed to acquire languagesights of things = sounds of wordsyour word use = word use of othersall languages have same building blockssmiles and hugs = use those words again!
14 Statistical Learning and Critical Periods Language: Acquisition TheoriesStatistical Learning and Critical PeriodsCritical Periods:childhood is designed to master languageage 3 - deadline to start learning language without penaltyage 7 - lose ability to master ANY languageage 9 - learning second language will have accent
16 Whorf’s Linguistic Determinism Hypothesis Language and ThinkingWhorf’s Linguistic Determinism HypothesisCriticism of Whorf:Immersion Programsour words may not determine what we think, rather influenceBilingualismVisualizationlanguage imposes different conceptions of reality(determines thinking)Thinking in imagesNondeclarative/procedural memoryShows much of information processed occurs outside of consciousness (only occasionally surfaces as conscious words)