Presentation on theme: "MODULE Basic Information on HINARI, AGORA and OARE and the Internet"— Presentation transcript:
1Basic Information on HINARI, AGORA, OARE, ARDI (Research4Life) and the Internet (module 1.1)
2MODULE 1.1 Basic Information on HINARI, AGORA and OARE and the Internet Instructions - This part of the:course is a PowerPoint demonstration intended to introduce you to Basic Internet Concepts.module is off-line and is intended as an information resource for reference use.
3Table of Contents Background – HINARI, AGORA, OARE, ARDI Basic Internet ConceptsStructure of the InternetCommon Internet ProtocolsTechnical Requirements for HINARI*Trainer NotesIntroduce yourself and welcome everyone to course. Ask participants to introduce themselves and give some information on what they expect to gain from the workshop. Distribute the manuals and discuss briefly each item on the list.The topics to be covered in this review are:Basic definition of Internet terms and concepts that are routinely used in discussions on using the Internet.A brief history of the Internet will be provided.The structure of the Internet and the tools that drive the use of the resources will be covered including the World Wide Web and its components.Types of Information resources and guidelines for their evaluation will be addressed.Search tools and techniques for accessing information will be covered.Researching Health and Biomedical Information on the WWW.
4For further information on all three programs, go to the url listed at the top of this slide. Each program has the same eligibility but your institution must register for each program separately.
5Objectives of Research4Life (R4L) To connect developing world researchers with the international scientific communityTo reduce the ‘publishing gap’ and improve the quality of locally produced articles and journalsUltimately – improve health, food security and environment in relation to Millennium Development Goals of 2015In this initial discussion, we will have an overview of HINARI and its partner programs. If your institution includes programs that would benefit from either agricultural research (AGORA) or environmental research (OARE) e-journals, you can register for these. Each program requires a separate registration and, for Band 2 countries, the $1000 payment. The following slides will summarize each project.
6HINARI (Health Access to Research programme) Online portal to publishersCoordinated by WHO/Yale University, USAFree/Low cost to >100 countries/territoriesOver 11,400 e-journals, 18,500 e-books and 70 information resources, 380 publishersMedicine and health5300+ institutions registeredData:
7AGORA (Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture) Online portal to publishersCoordinated by FAO/Cornell University, USAFree/Low cost to >100 countries/territories3400 journals, 2000 books, 20 information resources / 95 publishersAgriculture, food fisheries and related sciences2000 institutions registeredData:
9OARE (Online Access to Research in the Environment) Online portal to access environmental informationCoordinated by UNEP/Yale UniversityFree/Low cost to >100 countries/territoriesOver 4800 journals, 8300 books, / 110 publishersEnvironment and related sciences1800 institutions registeredData:
10Note that the initial pages of each program are similar Note that the initial pages of each program are similar. This also is true for the access to the journals once you have used the unique User Name and Password for your institution. Remember that each program that your institution registers for has a unique User Name and password. These User Names and Passwords should be distributed to all staff and/or students at the institution.
11ARDI (Access to Research for Development and Innovation) Launched in July 2009, aRDi is a program developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and its publishing partners in the fields of science and technologyFor developing countries – to support global knowledge economy and creation/development of new solutions to technical challenges on local and global levelBecame R4L partner program - July 2011Eligible institutions are patent offices and academic and research institutions14 publishers; access to 2000 journals, 5000 books, 14 publishers
13Eligibility ( )Institutions in countries with GNI (gross national income) per capita below $1600 or HDI (human development index) less than 0.63 are eligible for free access (Group A)Institutions in countries with GNI per capita between $1601-$5000 or HDI less than 0.67 pay a fee of $1000 per year (Band 2/Group B)Some publishers opt out of this option and do not allow access to their journalsFor details, seeInitially, the GNI levels were $1000 for Band 1/Group A and $ for Band 2/Group B. In 2008, these levels were increased to reflect inflation since the beginning of the program in In January 2012, the human development index has been added. Consequently, 17 countries moved from Band 2 (Group B) to Band 1 (Group A).
16Primary Target Audiences Eligible categories of institutions are:national universitiesresearch institutesprofessional schools (medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health, dentistry)teaching hospitalsgovernment: ministries and agenciesnational medical librarieslocally based non-governmental agenciesAll permanent and visiting faculty, staff members and students are entitled to access and can obtain the institutional User Name and Password.Recently, eligibility for not-for-profit agencies has been broadened. Those primarily funded by or affiliated with international agencies or non-governmental organizations are not eligible.
17Partners Program Partners Principal Publishers Elsevier ScienceSpringerWiley-BlackwellSageTaylor & FrancisLippincott/Williams & WilkinsBioOneOxford University PressNature PublishingOther science/technical/ medical publishersProgram PartnersWorld Health Organization - WHOFood and Agriculture Org. – FAOUnited Nations Environment Programme – UNEPWorld Intellectual Property Organization - WIPOYale University LibraryMann Library/Cornell UniversityInternational Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers – STMInformation Training and Outreach Centre for AfricaNational Library of MedicineMicrosoftLibrarians Without Borders®/MLAThis slide outlines HINARI’s extensive ‘public-private’ collaboration.
18What is the Internet?Publicly accessible network of interconnected computers which communicate via software protocol standardsEasily accessed (via modem and phone line, ISDN, direct cable landline, satellite)Expanding global infrastructure; is pan-national (no central control)Regarding information delivery, the most significant change since the development of the printing press in the 15th century!Basic Internet TerminologyWhat is the Internet?The Internet is a network of computers around the world that are linked together by telecommunications in order to share information. It is a network of networks. Different types of computers make up the network. Some computers contain information(host computers) or servers, others (clients) access the host or server to retrieve needed information.The Internet is a network of Computer Networks. Each computer on the network has a unique address, the Internet Protocol address (IP). It is made up of lots of servers and clients that hold and exchange information all over the world. The network is self organizing and self governing. There is no group that or individual that heads the network of net works. The computers are able to communicate with each other because they use a common set of rules or protocolsThe protocols Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) allows the connection and exchange of information between computers. There are a number of Internet protocols that make communication and information retrieval possible on the WWW.Telecommunications:The computers are able to communicate and exchange information because they use a common set of rules or protocols. These protocols allow us to connect to a remote computer(server) and access the information on it and perform any number of activities. The computer Networks communicate with each other.They are able to communicate because they use a common set of rules known as Internet Protocols.
19This Map how the Internet is distributed across the entire world This Map how the Internet is distributed across the entire world. North America and Europe concentrate the two largest groups of Internet assets with a total share of 22.5% for Europe and doubling this number 55.9% for North America. Asia is the next region in the list with a share of 14%. The image above uses colored dots to represent the distribution and is expressed in number of IP addresses per dot.Internet World Statistics 30 June 2010
20Internet Growth Exponential growth for the last few years In 1993, 90,000 people used the Internet; in 2002, 600 million people used the Internet; in 2007, over 1 billion people used the InternetHardware costs are decreasing year on yearWhile the recent increase of usage in developing countries has been significant, the overall % of users is significantly less than industrialized countries.
21INASP Cascading Workshop: Introduction to Using the Internet: Module 2 Copyright INASP – see: for more details.21
22Internet Architecture Web is based on a client/server architecture usingHTTP: Hypertext Transfer ProtocolSet of rules for communication between Web clients and serversCode is located inside <……><a href=“http://www.who.int/hinari”>HINARI</a> tells the web browser to open the HINARI websiteGive me file xComputer on the Internet holdinginformation - remote “server”Here it isDesktop computer - “client”
24Internet ServicesThe World Wide Web or a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet (multiple delivery options)Search tools via WWW (search engines, databases, gateways and portals)Communication ( )Retrieval/information transfer (File Transfer Protocol - FTP)
25The World-Wide Web WWW, web, W3, World-Wide Web Often what people mean by the InternetBased on hypertext - the ability to link text and documents dynamically and interactivelyUses hypertext markup language - HTMLThe WWW is a global standardCan use text, graphics, sound and videoAnyone can link to and make use of the web
26Delivery: Dial Up Connection International Gateway LinkPhone LineInternetISP ServerClient ComputerWith ModemSpeed of lineQuality of lineSpeed of connectionmodem speed: usually 56 kilobytes per seconddial into Internet Service Provider (ISP)quality of telephone line26
27Delivery: Broadband Connection FULL – TIME CONNECTIONLeased LinePermanent ConnectionInternetLAN ServerSpeed of lineQuality of lineLocal AreaNetwork• Speed of connection– LAN Server speed– Bandwidth (minimally 256kbts/s to Mbit/s)– Mode of link (radio, leased line, satellite)LAphone line27
28Access Speed Issues (Bandwidth) INASP Cascading Workshop: Introduction to Using the Internet: Module 2Access Speed Issues (Bandwidth)Cables vary in speed and amount of information they can carry (bandwidth)Sometimes cables are slow in carrying information or lose the signal, especially ifinformation must cross long distancestoo much traffic on cablecapacity (bandwidth) is low long distancestoo much traffic on the cablecable capacity, or bandwidth, is lowWhen the desktop client and the remote server are handing information back and forth, the information is being transmitted via a variety of ways. Some of these ways are wireless through broadcast signals (like radio), but most often the information is transmitted through cables of varying materials and speeds like telephone wires or fiber optic cables. You can think of these cables as pipes that, because of their varying materials and sizes and ability to handle traffic, are able to carry more or less information. The cable’s information carrying capacity is bandwidth. If you are connected to the Internet through a telephone line then your bandwidth is much lower than someone connected to the Internet through a large cable like a T1 line, and consequently you may not receive as much information as fast or you may have difficulty connecting to large resources at all.For example, if you are trying to download a file, if you are on a high bandwidth connection, it may take only minutes. However, if you are on low bandwidth connection, it may take hours or may not download at all.If you have used AGORA or other Internet resources and have noticed difficulties with the length of time it takes to log on, navigate to other websites, or download articles, it may be because of bandwidth. We will discuss these issues further later in the workshop.Copyright INASP – see: for more details.28
29Internet Requirements for HINARI 128 kbps, local area network (LAN), or cable connection required.A hard-wired full-time Internet connection (T1 or better) enables the fastest downloads.Satellite or network connections, though slower, are also adequate.Web Browser - Internet Explorer version 4.0 or Mozilla Firefox 1.0
30Web Browser Browser is the software that is used to view the Web Standard browser featuresscrolling, back, forward, stop, home, refreshNavigation - in built featuresback, forward, home, go to, yes, noSearch on a single web pageMultiple Web browser windowsBesides Internet Explorer, there are other options
31Besides Internet Explorer, two other viable browser options are Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome that was released in September 2008.
32Browser Customization Toolbar optionsLink to a specific homepageUsing the right click mouse buttonUsing favorites or bookmarksAddingOrganizingEditing
33Adobe Reader for PDFsYou will need an Adobe Reader to view journal articles in PDF (Portable Document Format).Adobe Reader can be downloaded for FREE from the Adobe web site:
37This page is being viewed with an Internet Browser This page is being viewed with an Internet Browser. Browsers allow computers to read Hyper Text Mark- up Language OR HTML.The Internet Address or URL is typed in the address field in Internet Explorer.In this example we have entered the URL - - for the HINARI website and clicked on the ENTER or RETURN key.
38Hypertext linksHypertext links are usually denoted by underlined text.Links to other pages are usually underlined or in another colour of text.
39Forward and back navigation buttons The arrow buttons on the tool bar allow users to move Back and Forward to pages within the website.The back and forward buttons allow you to navigate to previous pages within a website.
40Home page buttonThe House icon on the tool bar will take you back to the browser’s default Home Page.This is the end of Module 1.1There is a Work Book to accompany this part of the module. The workbook will take you through a live session covering the topics included in this demonstration with working examples.UpdatedIn Internet Explorer, the HOME button takes you back to the browser’s default home page.