Presentation on theme: "ESSENCE on Health Research"— Presentation transcript:
1ESSENCE on Health Research Enhancing Support for Strengtheningthe Effectiveness of National Capacity Efforts
2Conclusions (1)ESSENCE is an initiative of research funders committed to finding efficient methods of strengthening research capacity for health in low income countries in Africa in a concerted way in the spirit of the Paris AgendaResearch in and by low income countries requires the presence of robust in-country research capacitySustainable research capacity strengthening for health is more than research project support involving individual training; it requires support to the basis for performing research as defined by funded institutions
3Conclusions (2)For alignment of efforts of funders to happen, there need to be strategies and implementation plans defined by institutions performing research for healthHarmonisation does not necessarily mean funders funding exactly the same thing, but agreeing to “simplify” where possible, for instance agreeing to joint reporting systemsCoherence in research capacity funding suggests working in concert to reduce fragmentation and above all “to do no harm”
4ESSENCE for health research Is a collaborative framework between funding agencies (development agencies, philanthropists, charities and multilateral initiatives) providing synergism to address research capacity needs.It aims to improve the impact of investment in institutions and enabling mechanisms that address the identified needs and priorities within national strategies on research for health.
5ESSENCE Focus Funders of research for health Research (and innovation) capacity strengtheningLow income countries in Africa
6The Universal Declaration of Human Rights December 10th 1948, General Assembly of the United Nations Article 271) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
7Or is it enough for others to produce and give to them to use? But does this translate to every low income country having the right to have capacity to produce and utilise scientific informationOr is it enough for others to produce and give to them to use?
8“Not all countries should have national airlines, some must use the expertise of those with resources. So why should all low-income countries have institutions of health research?”A provocative statement made by one of the Northern proponents of research for healthPerhaps not all need an airline, but low-income countries definitely need a cadre of people who can ask their own questions and have the tools to address getting the answersOtherwise, who will ask the pertinent questions deemed relevant and of importance to the low income countries?Unreasonable to think it will be those with other agendas, however well meaning
9The tensions of research for health approaches in low-income African countries Different approaches justified by:By and forDefining the important problem of the countries and providing the know-how to be copied by the low-income countries through ”technology transfer”If there is not the adequate capacity, who or what system can receive the transferred technology and sustain it?Doing forBasing the argument on urgent need to address the burning issues of todaySustainability in questionIn and byIt is only by having the research know-how in the countries where the problems exist, to do and utilise research done that sustainable research capacity can be achievedThis is a long term endeavour
10Research capacity is more than human resources What then are the other elements?
11National Research capacity entails National commitment to researchNational research policy & strategyBudget line for National researchSkills for carrying out researchAsking nationally relevant questionsCapacity to generate own knowledgeNationalresearch capacityResearchUniversity as a hubNational research and ethics CapacityCapacity for analysisCapacity for evaluationCapacity to utilise external research/knowledgeInnovation systemsCulture of inquiryAgents of Change: Using evidence to questionCapacity to be part of international research community
12University Research capacity entails Well trained ResearchersUniversity policies and strategiesMechanisms to encourage & reward researchDedicated university budget for researchResearchUniversityMechanisms of research communicationAn EnablingEnvironmentfor researchCapacity for local PhD examinationUniversity mechanisms for innovationCulture of inquiryImproved teaching- less didacticSkills for research managementResearch Leadership skillsAccess to scientific literatureAccess to Information Communication Technology
14Africa is huge and capacity to do research diverse
15Diversity in capacity for research for health in low income countries Continued research capacity strengthening is an ongoing endeavour in all countriesResearch capacity issues are under control in some countries but in others the challenges remain acuteIt is important to distinguish the needs of countries (even those on the same continent) who have attained their targets for research capacity with those who are struggling to attain such targetsEmphasis of ESSENCE is on low income countries in Africa with weak research capacity for research for health
16Reiterating the Paris Agenda In the context of research capacity strengthening
17Paris AgendaFor research it is relevant to note:The Paris Declaration highlights the need for research in relation to development for providing the knowledge foundation and the expertise that make it possible for partner countries to analyse, formulate, negotiate, implement and evaluate their own development agenda.Today these functions are often performed by external consultants and technical assistance, provided by the donors
18Paris AgendaTo change the situation the Paris Declaration states that partner countries should undertake to:“Integrate specific capacity strengthening objectives in national development strategies and pursue their implementation through country-led capacity development strategies where needed.”
19Paris Agenda - Alignment “Donors base their overall support on partner countries’ national development strategies, institutions and procedures”Currently support to research (for health) is mainly focused on:research on issues of relevance to low-income countries (theme-based research), organised as projects, with a short- to medium-term perspective and closely connected to the agenda of the funding organisationLess funding goes toThe long-term commitment aimed at all levels of production and utilisation of research in a national or regional setting
20Paris Agenda - Ownership “Partner countries exercise effective leadership over their development policies and strategies and coordinate development actions”
21Paris Agenda - Alignment Development of partner countries’ capacity to negotiate collaborative research activities and to apply for research grants in line with their strategic orientation should be advocatedDonors involved in research cooperation with a country or regional/ international organisation ought to respect the rules and regulations for research, including research permits, research ethics, staff remuneration and institutional contracts
22Paris Agenda - Harmonisation “Donors’ actions are more harmonised, transparent and collectively effective”This requires support forestablishment of efficient mechanisms for management of external research funds; making it possible to channel funds through partner countries’ systemsproduction of uniform reporting formats at the supported institutions to be used by all donors.
23Paris Agenda - Mutual Accountability “Donors and partners are accountable for development results”partner countries and regional organisations should be encouraged to invite all research donors/funders to joint review meetings
24Coherence Funders should endeavour to adhere to the Paris agenda; We shouldBe mindful that in an attempt to assist, we should not undermine and fragment the efforts of fragile institutionsAt the least our actions should “do no harm” to partner country institutions
25Basis for research for health The basis for capacity for research for health also requires capacity in areas/disciplines of research of a broad nature.These include fundamental science (Biology, Statistics, Bio-Physics, molecular biology etc.) as well clinical research and health systems research
26ESSENCE is a response by funders to contribute to this
27The Establishment of ESSENCE ESSENCE was established after a meeting of funders in April 2008 in Stockholm entitled “Stockholm Meeting on Capacity Building for Research for Health”
28ESSENCEThe initial executive group includes development cooperation agencies – the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID ), International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, Norwegian, Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad), the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) – plus the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Wellcome Trust. NEPAD Science, Technology & Innovation have accepted an invitation to be part of the executive groupThe ESSENCE secretariat is hosted in TDR (Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases).
29The organisations taking part in the Stockholm meeting Bilateral funding agenciesCanada: IDRC + Global Health Research InitiativeThe Netherlands: NWO/WOTRO (Research Council, Science for Global Development), + Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands Platform for Global Health Policy and Health Systems Research,Norway: NORADDenmark: DANIDA/MFA + The Danish Research Network for International Health Department of International Health, Immunology & Microbiology University of Copenhagen,Sweden: Sida + Ministry of Foreign AffairsUK: DFIDMultilateral organisationsThe World Bank + WHO, TDR + The Bamako SecretariatOther funders (foundations, research funding bodies)Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation + Howard Hughes Medical Institute + The Wellcome Trust + EDCTPAfrican representativesISHReCA + WHO/AFRO + WHO Region for Africa Sub-Regional Office in Harare, Zimbabwe,
30ESSENCEESSENCE for health Research has started a process between the funders/development partners/donors (collectively referred to as “funders”) in the spirit of the Paris AgendaESSENCE is focused on how the funders can best align and harmonise and be coherent and learn from each other in the quest for supporting research capacity in AfricaESSENCE will of course engage partner countries and institutions
31ESSENCEIs open for all funders, bilateral development agencies, philanthropists, charities etc. who support or are interested in supporting research capacity in low income countries in Africa
32ESSENCE African countries African countries Sec. African countries RCS initiative AESSENCE SecretariatWorld BankEDCTPAfrican countriesExecutive CommitteeINDEPTHRCS initiative CESSENCE membersDFIDBMGFSidaNWOSec.NoradIDRCAfrican Dev. bankDANIDADutchNEPADWellcomeRCS initiative BISHReCARCS initiative AWHO/AFROGlobal Health Research InitiativeAfrican countriesAfrican advisors
33Working in the spirit of the Paris Agenda Strategies forHarmonising, alignment and coherence in support for research capacity strengthening in low income countries in AfricaWorking in the spirit of the Paris Agenda
34What ESSENCE is NotIt is not a research (R&D) project but it must be driven by research activitiesNot a new initiative for disbursing research project funds but a mechanism of funders funding low-income African country strategies of research capacity in a concerted fashionNot a ”budget support” arrangement but could involve basket funding when possibleIt is not trying to coordinate and define the research for health research performed, but seeking to find appropriate research capacity strengthening modalities in low income countries which if leveraged could have significant impact
36Performance Indicators ResultsPerformance IndicatorsOverall objectiveResearch capacity strengthening is strengthened in Africa in line with the Paris Agenda for Aid EffectivenessExtent to which research capacity support programmes of funders are aligned, coordinated and harmonised, extent to which systems of partner countries are being used (financial, monitoring, etcLong-term objectives: to be achieved by 20151) A system of support for research capacity strengthening by funding agencies is established that is aligned with the strategies of African Institutions1) no of funding agencies with support aligned with African partners strategies, implementation of strategies aligned with Afr institutions priorities, interviews (qualitative indicator)2) Increased number of consolidated meetings organised by supported African Institutions for presenting and reporting on results on research capacity strengthening to all funding agencies/ funders2) Routines for joint reporting, quality of joint reporting, frequency of joint reporting3) An increase in the number of development partners in African countries that support research capacity strengthening as an integral part of the development assistance3) No. of development partners/funders, type of partners/categories, level of funding for RCS4) Funding agencies accept one reporting format from the African Institutions4) No of funding agencies using reporting format of Afr institutions5) Funding agencies accept channelling funding through the African Institutions' own financial system5) Share of funding going through Afr institutions financial systems, no of funding agencies6) An increased use of analytical capacity among African researchers to benefit the country’s development6) The extent to which research produced within African countries is used
37Performance Indicators ResultsPerformance IndicatorsOverall objectiveResearch capacity strengthening is strengthened in Africa in line with the Paris Agenda for Aid EffectivenessExtent to which research capacity support programmes of funders are aligned, coordinated and harmonised, extent to which systems of partner countries are being used (financial, monitoring, etcInitiative objectives To be achieved by 20101) Increased understanding of the modalities, logic, role and impact of external research capacity strengthening support in African institutions by ESSENCE members1a) procedures/Channels for information exchange and collaboration, frequency of coordination meetings2) Electronic platform for sharing of information on research capacity strengthening established2) One stop shop for resources in capacity development for science & technology in research for health used by ESSENCE members3) Procedures for ESSENCE members working together in a concerted fashion in Pilot country collaborations established in Tanzania, Zambia, Uganda, Malawi and Mali.3) Pilot country collaboration tested in Tanzania and continued to be refined in other test countries that follow namely Zambia, Uganda, Malawi, Mali4) Administrative systems in African Institutions capable of channelling funding from various sources4) strengthened/developed institutions/routines/practices of financial/adm systems5) Increased consideration by funding agencies of research strategies and implementation plans of African countries and African Institutions prior to providing support for research capacity strengthening, long-term = alignment5) strategies and plans in line with those of African countries/institutions6) Increased number of African Institutions that have comprehensive reporting formats that can be used by several funding agencies/funders (= long-term)6) No of African institutions with reporting formats used by several funding agencies, usefulness of joint reporting formats (based on interviews)
41Several Funders can better impact on overall institutional needs Funder Y contribution
42Research capacity needs Endeavouring to limit the fragmentation in the little research capacity strengthening that is supported
43A concerted approach to research funding Support for the conditions/foundation for researchSupport for individual researchersSupport for research projectsFinding opportunities to work with other donors and funders in the spirit of the Paris Declaration for Aid effectivenessIndividualresearchersFoundationandBasis
45Key activities/methods Status ObjectivesKey activities/methodsStatusGlobal collaboration/dialogueMultilateral meetings involving donors and recipients to discuss cooperation strategies and harmonizationOngoingAdvocacySecretariat to promote Essence through multiple contacts and major funders. ESC to develop a common advocacy package to use in country visits and high level contacts.MappingIdentify strategic focus and modalities of funding of agencies/funders including geographic coverage in Africa, gaps and overlaps of institutions and countries funded. Strategic and implementation plans of African InstitutionsInitiated and soon to be presented to groupCountry-based pilot modelsReview, analyse and harmonize multiple input and approaches to selected recipient countries. Common plans to be drafted in discussion with developing countries institutions and investigators.Planning for Pilot-1 in TanzaniaDocument successesand failuresCollate reports, information, interviews and results from country visits and questionnaires on most successful practices and support modalities and of unsuccessful ones, identifying reasons for both.To be initiatedM&E indicatorsWorking group to review literature, share experiences, develop an indicator matrix and field test indicatorsElectronic platformWorking through TropIKA or SciDev to develop an interactive community of practice space for learning experience. Consolidation of information on calls, reports, guidelines, scientific documents, etcOngoing negotiations with TropIKA
46The response is the establishment of ESSENCE A strategy of funders to work together to support research capacity strengthening for health in low-income African CountriesThe response is the establishment of ESSENCE
47Conclusion 3ESSENCE aims address a number of points raised in the Global strategy and plan of action on public health, innovation and intellectual property(2.3) improving cooperation, participation and coordination of health and biomedical research and development(a) stimulate and improve global cooperation and coordination in research anddevelopment, in order to optimize resources(b) enhance existing fora and examine the need for new mechanisms, in order to improve the coordination and sharing of information on research and development activities(c) encourage further exploratory discussions on the utility of possible instruments ormechanisms for essential health and biomedical R&D, including inter alia, an essential health and biomedical R&D treaty(d) support active participation of developing countries in building technological capacity(e) promote the active participation of developing countries in the innovation process
48Conclusion 4 ESSENCE aims to support in a concerted way (3.2) Framing, developing and supporting effective policies that promote the development of capacities for health innovation(a) establish and strengthen regulatory capacity in developing countries(b) strengthen human resources in research and development in developing countries through long-term national capacity building plans(c) encourage international cooperation to develop effective policies for retention of health professionals including researchers in developing countries(d) urge Member States to establish mechanisms to mitigate the adverse impact of the loss of health personnel in developing countries, particularly researchers, through migration, including by ways for both receiving and originating countries to support the strengthening of national health and research systems, in particular human resource development in the countries of origin, taking into account the work of WHO and other relevant organizations.