2 1. What is happening when lightening occurs? The baby settles into the lower pelvis as the time of birth nears.Baby’s head places pressure on the rectum and pelvic floor.rib cage expands more easily allowing deeper breathseat without feeling full quicklymore pressure on their bladdersperpetual feeling that the baby is about to fall out.
3 2. What is the “bloody show” and what does it mean for pregnant women? It can be green, yellowish, pinkish, brown, the blend of all of them, or even clear. It is usually accompanied with blood.This vaginal stain occurs when the mucus that seals the cervix dissolves.This is an early sign that labor has begun.
4 3. Explain what occurs when a woman’s “water breaks.” The amniotic sac ruptures, and the woman feels a trickle or gush of warm amniotic fluid.
5 Effacement and Dilation Cervix – the opening to the uterusEffacementcervix gets shorter and thins out in order to stretch and open around your baby's head.is measured from 0% to 100%.Dilationstretching and opening of cervixmeasured from 1 to 10 centimeters.
6 4. What are contractions? What is their purpose? The tightening and releasing of the muscles of the uterus during labor.They push the baby out of the mother’s body.
7 5. What is the purpose of fetal monitoring during labor? External: To watch the baby’s heart rate for indicators of stress.Internal: A fetal scalp electrode is placed by screwing a tiny sire into the top layers of the baby's scalp, then relaying the baby's heart rate to the fetal monitor.
8 6. When is labor considered premature? What are the warning signs? When the fetus has been developing 37 weeks or less.Warning signs:Contractions every ten minutes or lessDull backacheLeaking fluid or blood
9 7. How can you distinguish false labor from real contractions? In false labor, contractions…Are not regular or rhythmicDo not increase in strength over timeEnd with light exercise, such as walking
10 8. Summarize the 3 stages of labor. First – contractions make the cervix dilate-first child: 6-18 hours; later children: 2-5 hoursSecond – baby is born; First child: 1-2 hours; later children: minutesThird – placenta is delivered; minutes
12 9. What is a breech presentation? Why is it a complication? When the baby does not enter the lower pelvis with his head down.The baby may have difficulty moving through the woman’s pelvis.Preferable to try to turn a breech baby between the 32nd and 37th weeks of pregnancy.
13 10. How is the hormone “relaxin” related to dilation? It allows the ligaments that join the bones of the mother’s pelvis to stretch like rubber bands, moving apart the pelvic bones.It also allows the walls of the birth canal to stretch so the baby can pass through.This causes the “waddle.”
14 11. What is an episiotomy, and why is it done? It is a surgical cut made to enlarge the opening of the vagina.It keeps the skin from tearing.
15 12. What are stem cells, and why are they important? Cells in the cord blood left behind in the umbilical cord & placenta after birthThey can produce all types of blood cells.Can be used to treat serious blood-related illnesses in the baby and other family members
16 13. What is a cesarean birth? Why is it sometimes necessary? Delivery through a surgical incision in the mother’s abdomenMay be needed ifLabor is not progressing normallyBaby is distressed or turned wrongMultiple babies
17 14. What factors increase the chances of premature birth? Mother has had other premature birthsMultiple babiesMother has other medical problemsMother is a teen
18 15. Why does a premature baby need an incubator? Brain has not yet developed the ability to control all body systemsAn incubator controls oxygen supply, temperature, and humidity
22 16. FontanelsOpen spaces on the baby’s head where the bones are not yet joined. They allow the bones to move together during passage through the birth canal. One is just above the baby’s forehead and the other is toward the back of the skull.It may make the head appear pointed or lopsided.
23 17. Newborn ProportionsThe newborn’s brain is large. After birth, the head and brain grow much less than the rest of the baby’s body.
24 18. What physical adjustments do newborns’ bodies make to survive outside the uterus? The lungs take in oxygen.The circulatory system begins to deliver blood to lungs.The heart pumps harder.Small openings in the heart begin to close.A new type of hemoglobin develops.
25 19. What is lanugo, and what happens to it? Fine, downy hair growing on a newborn’s forehead, back, and shoulders.It disappears soon after birth.
26 20. When nurses give the newborn its first bath, what are they washing away? What is the purpose of this substance?A white, pasty substance called vernix (made up of the fetus’s shed skin cells and skin gland secretions).It protects the skin against constant exposure to the amniotic fluid.
27 21. What is the purpose of the Apgar scale 21. What is the purpose of the Apgar scale? What five areas does it rate?It rates the physical condition of the newborn, including:BreathingResponse to stimulationHeart rateClear skin colorMuscle tone
28 22. Identify medical procedures that are performed shortly after birth and tell the purpose of each. Weigh and measure the babyApply antibiotic drops to eyes to prevent infectionGive vitamin K to prevent rare bleeding disorderHearing screeningBlood tests to determine type & screen certain diseases
29 23. What steps are taken to record a newborn’s identity? A footprint is takenA plastic I.D. badge is attached to the baby, the mother, and someone of the mother’s choosing
30 Watch…Stop at 24:16 and watch the rest tomorrow.Stop at 24:16
32 24. What are some new things a mother can do to begin bonding with her newborn? Hold, carry, rock the babyTouch the baby’s fingers and toesTalk, sing, read to the babyLook into the baby’s eyes
33 25. How do bonding activities affect the baby’s brain? They help the brain develop and build connections.
34 26. What is colostrum? How does it help the baby? High calorie, high protein early breast milkIt satisfies hunger & provides protection from illnesses
35 27. What period of time is considered the neonatal period? The baby’s first month of life
36 28. A new mother is frightened. The baby’s eyes and skin appear yellow 28. A new mother is frightened. The baby’s eyes and skin appear yellow. What is the condition and what causes it? Does it require treatment?Jaundice – a common condition that occurs when the liver can’t remove bilirubin quickly enough.It requires treatment, such as phototherapy, to avoid damage to the nervous system.
37 29. What do lactation consultants do? Teach new mothers to breastfeed.
38 30. Describe the benefits of rooming-in. Fathers can visit anytime.Babies have on main caregiver, so they cry less.Mothers get more rest not worrying about baby in nursery.Parents start learning how to take care of the baby right away.
39 31. What two legal forms should parents complete for their new baby? Birth certificateApplication for Social Security number
40 32. Identify the physical problems of premature babies. Lack the ability to coordinate sucking and swallowing milk.Lack enough body fat for warmth.Immature lungsImmature digestive system
41 33. Summarize the physical needs of a new mother during the prenatal period. RestGentle exerciseGood nutrition, incl. plenty of fluidsMedical checkup 4-6 weeks after giving birth
42 Pelvic floorSupport for the bladder, intestines, the uterus (in females), and in maintenance of continence as part of the urinary and anal sphincters.
43 34. Compare and contrast “baby blues” with postpartum depression 34. Compare and contrast “baby blues” with postpartum depression. How are they similar and different?SimilaritiesBoth are feelings of sadness, often include crying and anxietyDifferencesPostpartum depression is more extremeWith PD, woman may be overly anxious about baby, have little interest in the baby, or think of harming the baby. They need immediate help.