Mosaic Tiny bits of glass or stone glued together to make a picture. Mosaics decorated church interiors. In the 5 th century Ravenna became the capital of the Roman Empire San Vitale mosaics, Ravenna, Italy
Church architecture: 1) Only source of order after the fall of the Roman Empire. 2) Primary source of knowledge in Middle Ages. 3) Church became the economic and political force in Europe. 4) Popes and bishops were the leaders of Europe. 5) The richer the town the bigger the church – competition between cities. 6) Basilica type churches
St. Peter’s Basilica built by the Emperor Constantine 4 th century
Monasteries: 1) Fortresses built to keep the evil of the world out – not to keep the monks in nor to protect from attack – no wealth. 2) Built in inaccessible places. 3) Source of knowledge – recorded the Greek and Latin historical records in books. 4) Primary source of historical information of their time. 5) Major source of writing art – the Bibles.
Byzantine Architecture The Golden Age of Byzantine Architecture was under the rule of Justinian in 527-565. It was during this period that the most famous example of all Byzantine Architecture was built, the Hagia Sophia. The style of the Hagia Sophia or Church of Divine Wisdom, was to have a large dome in the middle of the structure. The dome has a unique form in that it rest on 4 massive pillars which are arranged in a square.
Byzantine architecture: 1) Named after the old Greek city Byzantium. 2) Eastern Roman Empire – Constantinople-named after Constantine 3) Eastern Roman Emperor – Justinian introduced the style. 4) First church built exclusively for the Christian God. 5) Hoped to use the new church (Hagia Sophia) to encourage the pope to move his residence to Constantinople. 6) Placing a dome on a square building to open the area to light. 7) No rounded arches, not in the shape of a cross – just a square structure. 8) Transition between a dome and a square building was the Pendentive. 9) Hagia Sophia was the largest domed church until St. Peter’s.
Byzantine Architecture The dome remained the main focus of the Byzantine Church for the remainder of the empire. The Eastern Orthodox preferred a low light, somber, and almost mysterious mood in their services. The clergy worked often behind the scenes with brief appearances. They did not embrace the loud organs and congregational worship which is seen in the western Catholic Church. So the Hagia Sophia became the model for the Byzantine church because it was an architectural style that fit with the type of worship the Orthodox church wanted to emphasize.
Byzantine architecture – St. Mark’s Venice, Italy
St. Basil’s – Russian Byzantine architecture – built by Ivan the Terrible Moscow, Russia
Pilgrimages 12th -15 th century During the middle ages, life expectancy was short. Poverty, plague, relentless wars, famine, overwhelmed the people. Medicine was almost non-existent. In most cases, people could only hope for the miracles offered by being in the presence of sacred relics. It was believed that pilgrimages to places where Christ and his disciples had lived would be seen by Christ as a plea for eternal salvation.
Relics Relic- A bone or sacred object from a Saint or Holy figure. Icon- An image of a Saint or Holy Figure. Usually with a gold background. Reliquary- A container for holding relics Christ’s Crown of Thorns- Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris