Presentation on theme: "Social Partners and Climate Change Bruno Estrada Research Director Fundación 1º de mayo. CC.OO. Spain 14th of May ETUI Conference. Athens."— Presentation transcript:
Social Partners and Climate Change Bruno Estrada Research Director Fundación 1º de mayo. CC.OO. Spain 14th of May ETUI Conference. Athens.
TURI Project Coordination: Fundación 1º de mayo. Spain Preliminary Report about Green Jobs in the European Union ISTAS (Union Institute of Work, Environment and Health). 5 National reports about green jobs, climate change and social dialogue: Germany- Alexander Gallas (International Center for Development and Decent Work. University of Kassel). Sweden- Bo Johansson (SALTSA. Uppsala University). Spain- Begoña María-Tomé (ISTAS). Italy- Serena Rugiero. Osservatorio Energia e Innovazione (IRES-Italy). France- Benoit Robin (IRES-France).
Preliminary Report Methodology A literature review on the national policies and plans implemented in EU- 27 to promote a green economy, green jobs ( until sept. 2010). A questionnaire to the 27 Spanish embassys economy and labour sections.
Preliminary Report Contents 1.Political framework for green economy at european level. 2.Overview of green jobs in the EU in Review of the agenda for green jobs in Member States 4.References and significant web links
Bibliography and references links More than 205 references at the European level and national level References with the web links More than 205 references at the European level and national level References with the web links
Preliminary Report Conclusions 5 millions of green jobs in Europe Official definition for green jobs Number of green jobs Germany Yes United Kingdom Yes France Yes Austria Yes Portugal Yes (National Statistics Agency) Denmark Yes Ireland Yes Bulgaria Yes¿? Spain No Italy No Poland No Belgium No Finland No11.275
Germany: General Debates With the CDU-FPD government the idea of Green New Deal (GND) has been ignored. The unions (DGB) has endorsed the idea of the GND in its conference in 2010 but with reluctance. Its proposals are building renovation, investment in public transport, and energy efficiency. Thinking more in a Social New Deal with few green aspects. For the employers green jobs haven't to be the focus of strategies in economic and environmental policies.
Germany: Social Dialogue Building Renovation Programme. It is the most significant instance of cooperation between social partners. Implemented by the red-green government in It created jobs each year between Other sectorial agreements: Aluminium, Electric Mobility (IG Metall, Federal Gov, scientists and branches of industry affected) Agreements only with employers, without unions.(After the rigth govt).
Sweden: General Debates Sweden was a leading actor in the EU: Goal of 50% energy consumption from renewable energy by 2020 Car fleet independent of fossil energy by Objective of Zero net emissions of greenhouse gases by But this issue has lost considerable intensity since the Copenhagen summit in More often remains on the rhetorical level. After the emergence of the financial crisis the priorities of the voters valued Climate Change as the tenth issue.
Sweden: Social Dialogue No formalized social dialogue on climate change at central organizations level. Unions (LO, TCO, Saco): Relates the climate change with jobs, welfare system and international solidarity. Promotes the idea of including these matters in the collective bargaining agenda Need of a carbon tax Sweden must maintain a leading position. The Employers agree with the long-term environmental objectives, but not legally binding for the companies. Some of the goal relating transport, energy and chemical sector are unrealistic in the given time-limit. The Swedish Union of Local Government Officers has reached an agreement stating that the climate improvements by employees shall be rewarded.
Spain: General Debates On March 2011 the Sustainable Economy Bill (SEB) was approved, without social dialogue, after two years of discussions, it get worse after may In many matters the Bill is considered merely a declaration of principles. The main issues: VAT reduction for building renovation. Promotion of energy services. But No carbon tax. The law allows to extend the life of the nuclear plants (Agreement of the socialdemocratic and right parties). The Gov. have change the legal framework of aids to the renewable energy sector, and thousands of employs have been laid off.
Spain: Social Dialogue There are 8 Sectorial Social Dialogue Boards, tripartite (unions, employers, gov.) created in 2005 by law, after de Social Agreement for dialogue on the compliance with Kyoto Protocol: electricity, refineries, iron, steel and coke industries, cement plants, ceramic and paste, glass industry, paper and cardboard, and diffuse emissions. Employers prefer to maintain them as an exchange of opinion and information. Unions believe that theses boards should become a space for political debate and social consensus. In the wind sector there has been a bilateral initiative (unions and employers) develop defend jobs direct employees and indirect have been laid off due to the legal changes.
Italy: General Debates The implementation these policies are in trouble after the inconclusive results of Copenhagen summit of Most of the normative frame of reference is almost entirely derived from EU. Unions: A sense of failure Confindustria criticises the gov. for constraints to the industry in order to meet the EU´s goals.
Italy: Social Dialogue There isn't social dialogue at national level about green jobs. There is an Economic and Social Council for Environmental Policies since 2004, with social partners and Govt. Unions and employers considered that is not very useful due to the short-time positions of the Govt. Building Renovation Agreement ( Tax reduction of 55% for energy renovation) Positive effects at productive and employment level: technological innovation and emergence of the black market.
France: General Debates Before the economic crisis the sustainable development had become omnipresent Environment Grenelle. National Sustainable Development Strategy. Report on Green growth and employment Employment Policy Council new employs. It has many Union's critics. The crisis reduce the extent to which environmental issues are taken into account.
France: Social Dialogue The most important processes of consultation with all the social partners is the Environment Grennelle. Eleven sectors committees were created in November 2009:transport, car industry, renewable energy, water-sanitation-waste-air, building, agriculture and forestry, eco-electric systems, refineries-fuel-green chemicals, tourism, maritime, biodiversity-ecological services. Three levels: State, sectors and regions.
France: Social Dialogue The Unions (CGT, FO, CFDT) opinion is that the government impetus about sustainable development seems to have disappeared. There are many delays in translating into law the results of Grenelle. Employers believes that the measures must be based more on incentives than on penalties. Tax neutrality
Two competing conceptions: Incremental technological modernisation. Employers Politically-induced rupture and replacement. Unions Intermediate positions can be found at national or sectorial level.
Incremental technological modernisation. Step by step adaptation to a low carbon Economy: Innovative technologies + political interventions facilitating it. Measures to reduce climate change has to consider the median of the EU-27, 20% in 2020, without unilateral obligations. Supported from right wing Govt. Social dialogue it is not necessary except in the field of training workers in new skills. Only Govt-employers dialogue. DO IT YOURSELF
Politically-induced rupture and replacement Complete overhaul of given socio-economic order through far-reaching political interventions. Need of big public budget. Supported by social democratics Govt and France. Policies developed in the context of social dialogue between employers, employees and Govt, with a high level of institutionalization. WE DETERMINE THE FINISH LINE These policies can promote European economy as leader in Environmental products and services.
Conclusions The effects of the crisis on national budgets and the poor results of the Copenhagen summit in 2009 have pushed the positions towards the DO IT YOURSELF conception. These policies, means no more than 20% reductions in On March 2011 only 7 countries of UE have proposed more reductions (30%) It can't prevent increase of 2 centigrade medium temperature of the planet. Social Dialogue has been reduced.
Social Dialogue has been reduced: In France delay of legal application of the Grenelle. No social dialogue at national level in Italy and Sweden. In Spain limited to a exchange of information. Many changes in Sustainable Economy Bill without Social dialogue. Cuts in environmental budgets. In Germany low continuity of general agreements during the red-green gov. and beginning of agreements without unions.