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Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Implications for Informal Education Cities for Children 2010 Miho Taguma Project manager Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Implications for Informal Education Cities for Children 2010 Miho Taguma Project manager Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Implications for Informal Education Cities for Children 2010 Miho Taguma Project manager Education and Training Policy Division Directorate for Education, OECD

2 Todays Presentation 1.Quality matters. But what is quality? 2.What factors can enhance child well- being and learning outcomes? 3.What policies can make a difference in child outcomes, affecting these factors? 4.Next steps

3 Policy - Input Education policy Social policy ECEC (Child) policy Social outcomes Educational outcomes Cognitive, literacy, numeracy, phonological Socio- emotional Health Child Intermediaries bet/ policy and child outcomes Interactions with Environment and Actors

4 Policy - Input Education policy Social policy ECEC policy (child policy) Environments (Actors) Child Outcomes Cognitive, literacy, numeracy, phonological Socio- emotional Health ECEC institutions (Staff, peers, etc.) Home (Parents, siblings, grandparents, nannies, babysitters, etc) Outside ECEC institutions/Home- parks, museums, zoos, libraries, shopping centres, others home, etc. (Communities, peers, other parents, strangers, babysitters, etc) Family daycare (caregiver, peers)

5 Child outcomes Research says…. (Preliminary findings) At ECEC institutions Indoor space (room size vs space per child) Outdoor space Environment that stimulates childs innate curiosity Less disruptive behaviour Less stress/ anxiety Better cognitive development and academic outcomes Physical Environments At Home Richness of the literacy environment – books at home Better cognitive development and academic outcomes

6 Child outcomes cooperative behave better Better cognitive development and basic skills Language Reasoning Verbal analogies Letter identification/ awareness of print Writing Better math skills in primary schools Academic skills (girls but not boys) ECEC staff Age (young) and Years of experience (less) Staff/child ratio and group size Higher qualifications and training Motivated and committed to professionalism, viewing it as a long-term career With sufficient time to plan activities Attachment to the child Less stress (Gender/Ethnic background) Characteristics of Main Actor Parents Socio-economic status Mothers qualification levels Mothers socio-emotional status Lone parent status Socio-emotional status (depression) Parenting behaviour (discipline, neglect, consistent/inconsistent routines, etc) Verbal ability Poverty Hygene and sanity Obesity Depression/ anxiety Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Aggressive behaviors Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD Cognitive and socio- emotional outcomes throughout the life course

7 Child Independent thinking Better cognitive development and academic outcomes Pedagogy Consistent staff behaviour Staff child ratio Interactions Shared thinking, continuous thinking Asking open-ended Q and asking further Qs based on the childs response Less disruptive behaviour Less stress/ anxiety Self-confidence Curriculum and preparation Sufficient play time learning through playing (not too much academic) Combination: staff-initiated group work and child-initiated free activities (not too staff-initiated Duration of the curriculum Variety (different topics, mixed activities) Focus on foundations skills (social and cognitive behaviour, memory, early literacy, early numeracy, reading & writing, oral communication Dramas, physical movements, etc. Health-related matters (using signs, pictures, drama, etc.) With sufficient time allocated for preparation to plan activities Lower participation in SEN Better word analysis, numeracy, shape recognition in kindergarten (if too much, effects fade out) Better language development Better school readiness Better reading scores (grade 3 & 8) Lower repetition rates Higher HS completion Less disruptive behaviour Less stress/ anxiety (if too much, risk to illness) Self-confidence self-regulation Independent thinking lower crime rates (age 23) Increased knowledge about nutrition, hygiene Less obesity in later years Parental engagement at home and attitudes towards the child Interactions; parents and child to engage in together Early literacy activities at home Reading to child, reading aloud signs and labels Telling stories, Singing songs, Playing with letters and numbers, alphabet toys, word games, etc. Visiting library, Drawing, etc. Better cognitive development Better readers Better grades in grade 4 Pro-social and positive behaviour Self-esteem Perseverance and motivation More participation in learning Positive engagement with peers and adults Engagement between Child and Main Actor

8 ECEC policy – Improving working conditions and provide relevant training Policies to Change the Environment and Actors: 1) ECEC Institutions/ Staff Pedagogy and attitudes towards the child Consistent staff behaviour, warm attitudes Interactions Scaffolding Shared thinking, continuous thinking Asking open-ended Q and asking further Qs based on the childs response ECEC staff Age (young) and Years of experience (less) Staff/child ratio and group size Higher qualifications and training Motivated and committed to professionalism, viewing it as a long-term career With sufficient time to plan activities Attachment to the child (Gender/Ethnic background)

9 Raise status of ECEC professionals Arrange for wage-setting and other terms and conditions Modernise qualifications and diversify career paths Offer adequate and needs-based staff support Monitor workforce supply and assess working conditions ….etc. Revise teacher education to raise the level of qualifications Develop continuous, specialised training (vs experience) with support from employers Age-appropriate language and literacy interventions Numeracy, experimental sciences Blending embedded and explicit instructional strategies Focus on child development (how children learn, see the world, etc.) Assessment of well-being and learning Communication with parents Provide financial support to employed staff for upskilling Integrate training and qualifications among staff across different levels Ensure allocating public funding to improve the quality of staff Provide grants to partnerships providing high quality professional development to staff working with children from low-income families in high need districts Use recognition of non-formal and informal learning to validate existing competences ….etc. Strategies to implement… ECEC policy – Improving working conditions ECEC policy – Providing relevant training

10 Policies to Change the Environment and Actors: 3) Home/Parents ECEC policy - Encourage parental and community engagement Anti-poverty measure Adult education and training policy Social welfare policy Equity measures Parents Socio-economic status Mothers qualification levels Mothers socio-emotional status Lone parent status Socio-emotional status (depression) Parenting behaviour (discipline, neglect, consistent/inconsistent routines, etc) Parental engagement at home and attitudes towards the child Interactions; parents and child to engage in together Early literacy activities at home Reading to child, reading aloud signs and labels Telling stories, Singing songs, Playing with letters and numbers, alphabet toys, word games, etc. Visiting library, Drawing, etc. Home environment Richness of the literacy environment – books at home

11 Frequent contacts between ECEC staff and parents Home visits Extended class visits Parents help with a class activity, or do activities at home, which are consistent / continuity with those in the classroom Open site – families can visit at any time during the regular hours of operation Families are included in the governing/ advisory groups Provide families with information about programmes and services of other families/programmes to help them ensure good health and provide education opportunities for their children …etc. Strategies to implement… ECEC policy - Encourage parental and community engagement

12 ECEC policy – Broad guidelines and curricular standards with the stakeholders for all ECEC services Policies to Change the Environment and Actors: 3) Curriculum Curriculum Sufficient play time learning through playing Combination: staff-initiated group work and child-initiated free activities Duration Variety (different topics, mixed activities) Focus on foundations skills (social and cognitive behaviour, memory, early literacy, early numeracy, reading & writing, oral communication Dramas, physical movements, etc. Health-related matters (using signs, pictures, drama, etc.)

13 ECEC policy – broad guidelines and curricular standards with the stakeholders for all ECEC services Strategies to implement… Clarify the broad (not detailed) goals for ECEC with all the key stakeholders and set out educational plans Formulate national guidelines – flexible and relevant - after a wide process of consultation – democratic and respectful of parental wishes and educators Provide training to teachers to implement the curriculum (also to be creative with flexibility given) Monitor the implementation of the curricular standards Develop research-based curricular and assessment Integrate ECEC to develop comprehensive early childhood guidelines/ curricular standards Ensure curriculum foster smooth transition from ECEC to preschool Allocate funding to implement quality curriculum Integrate quality assurance mechanisms for ECEC Give autonomy to ECEC services ensure giving training concerning pedagogy, curriculum development, etc (see provide training) …etc.

14 Next Steps Remaining Qs: What are the success factors/ obstacles for implementation? What kind of tools, checklists, materials, data can help implement? Project Phase: Answer the above questions Assist countries with the implementation phase From what to how Policy Forum organised at a national, regional, municipality/city level For more information:


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