3 Key Terms & Examples:Solids: Have a definite shape and a definite volume.Ex) A desk, watch, computer.Crystalline solids: Solids that are made up of crystals.Ex) Quartz is a crystalline solid. Its particles are arranged in a regular pattern.Amorphous solids: The particles are not arranged in a regular pattern.Ex) Plastics, rubber, and glass. Butter is an amorphous solid. Its particles are not arranged in a regular pattern.Liquids: Have a definite volume but no shape of its own.Ex) Water lemonade
4 Key Terms & Examples: Fluid: Liquid, meaning “a substance that flows.” Surface tension: The result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface close together.Ex) Water beads up on a leaf due to attractions between the water molecules. Surface tension in water is strong enough to support the weight of an insect.Viscosity: another property of liquids, a liquids “resistance to flowing”.Ex) High viscosity: honey. Low viscosity: water and vinegar.Gases: Have no definite shape or volume.Ex) Air.
5 Types of MatterShapeVolumeParticle AverageParticle movementSolidsDefiniteFixed in one positionPacked together closelyParticles vibrate in placeLiquidsUndefiniteMove freely but slowlyParticles move freely and slowlyGasesNot packedMove fast and freelyParticles move fast and freely
7 Key Terms & Examples:Melting: The change in state from a solid to a liquid.Melting point: The specific point were melting occurs.Freezing: The change of state from liquid to a solid.Vaporization: The change of state from liquid to gas.Evaporation: The surface of the liquid were vaporization takes place.Boiling: Occurs when a liquid changes to a gas below its surface as well as at the surface.Boiling point: The temperature at which a liquid boils.Condensation: The opposite of vaporization.Sublimation: Occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy to form a gas.
8 Gas Solid Liquid Melting Vaporization Melting Point Boiling Point FreezingBoilingSublimationDecompositionCrystallineAmorphousSurface tensiónViscosityEvaporationBoilingParticles: fixedPacked: closely togetherMove freelyclose togetherFar apart
9 Changes between solid and liquid: MELTINGChanges between solid and liquid:At its melting point, the particles of a solid substance are vibrating so fast that they break free from their fixed position.
10 Changes between liquid and solid: FREEZINGChanges between liquid and solid:At its freezing temperature, the particles of a liquid are moving so slowly that they began to form regular patterns.
11 EVAPORATION VS. BOILING Changes between liquid and gas:Vaporization takes place when the particles in a liquid gain enough energy to form a gas.Boiling point and air pressure:The boiling point of a substance depends on the pressure of the air above it.
12 CONDENSATIONCondensation occurs when particles in a gas lose enough thermal energy to form a liquid.
13 Changes Between solid and gas: SUBLIMATIONChanges Between solid and gas:During sublimation particles of a solid do not pass through the liquid state as they form a gas.
15 Measuring GasesWhen working with gas, it is important to know its volume, temperature, and pressure.Volume:Volume can be measured in volume cm3 and cm2 and in liters (L) and milliliters (ML).Temperature:A measurement in degrees Celsius or in degrees Fahrenheit.Changes in Pressure:The pressure of gas is the force of its outward push.Pressure is equal to force over area.Pressure= ForceArea
16 Boyle’s and Charles’s Laws: Pressure and Volume= Boyle’s Law: He found out that when the pressure of a gas at constant temperature is increased, the volume of a gas decreases. When the pressure is decreased, the volume is increased.Volume and Temperature: Charles’s Law: He found out that when the temperature of a gas is increased at constant pressure, its volume increases. When the temperature of a gas is decreased at constant pressure, its volume is decreased.
17 BOYLE’S LAW: Increasing pressure, decreasing volume. Greatest pressure, least volume.As weights are added, the gas particles occupy a smaller volume. The pressure increases.
18 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE: Gas at high temperature.Gas at low temperature.When a gas is heated, the particles move faster and collide more with each other and with the walls of their container. The pressure of the gas increases.
19 CHARLES’S LAW: Higher temperature, greater volume. Lower temperature, smaller volume.Changing the temperature of a gas at constant pressure changes its volume in a similar way.
20 Pressure and VolumeBoyle’s LawInverseTP VPressure and temperature_______________DirectVP TVolume and temperatureCharles’s LawPV T
22 Key TermsGraph: Diagram that tells how two variables, or factors that change, are related.Origin: (0,0)Graphs that are directly proportional: Two variables that pass through the origin in a straight line.Graphs that vary inversely:Two variables form a curve.
23 Temperature and Volume: Collecting Data: Scientists often work with gas temperatures in units called kelvins. To convert from Celsius degrees to kelvins (K), add 273. The kelvin temperatures will be used to graph the data.The graph of Charles’s law shows that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature under constant pressure.The graph for Boyle’s law shows that the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume at constant temperature.
24 Graphing Charles’s Law: A graph of the data from the image shows the relationship known as Charles’s law. The dotted line predicts how the graph would look if the gas could be cooled further.
25 Graphing Boyle’s Law:A graph of the data from the image shows the relationship between pressure and volume known as Boyle’s law.
26 GRAPHING GAS BEHAVIOR: The “y” axis is the responding variable and the “x” variable is the manipulated variable.Boyle’s law is indirect (negative) and Charles’s law is direct (positive).The manipulated variable in Boyle’s law is volume and the responding variable is pressure.Meanwhile in Charles’s law, temperature is the manipulated variable and volume is the responding variable.