Presentation on theme: "WHI-9 Europe during the Middle Ages 500 to 1000 AD (CE)"— Presentation transcript:
WHI-9 Europe during the Middle Ages 500 to 1000 AD (CE)
Roman Catholic Church Secular authority declined, so Church authority grew. The Church & Pope became super powerful: – Pope anointed the Emperors – Missionaries spread Christianity to Germanic tribes – Church was the center of daily life On the following slides are the 3 foundations of early medieval society…
Influence of the Church Monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements. Missionaries carried Christianity & the Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes. Pope anointed Charlemagne Emperor in 800 AD. Parish priests served religious & social needs of people.
The decline of the Roman influence in Western Europe left people with little protection against invasion, so they entered into feudal agreements with land-holding lords/monarchs who promised them protection.
Fief is land given in exchange for military service
Vassals- get land in exchange for their military service
Serfs - an poor person who is bound to the land. They were forced to work in return for protection and the right to work on leased fields.
Franks emerge as a Force in Western Europe Frankish kings used military power to expand territory. Had an alliance w/ the Church reestablished Roman culture in Western Europe.
The Pope anointed Charlemagne Emperor in 800 AD. It became the Holy Roman Empire.
Charlemagne’s conquest united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire
Charlemagne is considered the greatest king of the Middle Ages.
Age of Charlemagne Franks emerged as a force in Western Europe. Power of the Church was established in political life. Roman culture was reinterpreted. Most of western Europe was under his control. Churches, roads, and schools were built to unite the empire.
Charlemagne died and the Empire was divided among his 3 Grandsons
Angles and Saxons settled from continental Europe to England
Expansion and Consolidation in Europe England – William the Conqueror, leader of the Norman Conquest, united most of England. – Common law had its beginnings during the reign of Henry II. – King John signed the Magna Carta, limiting the King’s powers. – The Hundred Years War between England and France helped define England as a nation. – Evolution of Parliament.
Expansion and Consolidation France – Hugh Capet (a Frank) established the French throne in Paris, and his dynasty gradually expanded their control over most of France. – The Hundred Years War between England and France helped define France as a nation. – Joan of Arc was a unifying factor.
Expansion and Consolidation Spain – Ferdinand and Isabella unified the country and expelled the Jews and Moors. – Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere expanded under Charles V. Russia – Ivan the Great threw off the rule of the Mongols, centralized power in Moscow, expanded the Russian nation. – Power was centralized in the hands of the tsar. – The Orthodox Church influenced unification.
Crusades and Invasions Invasions- Crusades were carried out by Christian political and religious leaders to take control of the holy Land from the Muslims. Mongol armies invaded Russia, Southwest Asia, and China, creating an empire. Ottoman Turks conquered the Byzantine Empire.
Key Events of the Crusades Pope Urban’s speech that sparked the first crusade. – “It’s God’s Will” The capture of Jerusalem from the Muslims. Founding of Crusader states. Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin. Sack of Constantinople by Western Crusaders.
Effects of Crusades Weakened the Pope and nobles; strengthened monarchs. Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle East. Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Weakened the Byzantine Empire.
Invasions Mongol Armies – Invaded Russia, China, and Muslim states in Southwest Asia, destroying cities and countryside. – Created an Empire.
Invasion Constantinople – Fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 ending the Byzantine Empire. – Became capital of the Ottoman Empire.
Black Death In the fourteenth century, the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) decimated the population of much of Asia and then the population of much of Europe. Impact of the Black Death – Decline in population. – Scarcity of labor. – Towns freed from feudal obligations – Decline of church influence. – Disruption of trade.
Education in the Middle Ages Education was largely confined to the clergy during the Middle Ages. The masses were uneducated, while the nobility was concerned with feudal obligations. Church scholars preserved ancient literature in Monasteries in the East and West. Church Scholars – Were among the very few who could read and write. – Worked in monasteries. – Translated Greek and Arabic works into Latin. – Made new knowledge in philosophy, medicine, and science available in Europe. – Laid the foundation for the rise of universities in Europe.
What became the main unifying force of Western Europe during the Middle Ages? A.The Kings of various countries B.The Holy Roman Emperor C.The Pope/ Roman Catholic Church D.The monasteries
Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope in 800 AD. That was seen by many as: A.A revival of the old Roman Empire B.A new sense of power/ authority for the Kings C.Sacrilegious D.Fake
MagyarsHungary VikingsRussia Angles????? Which of the following best completes the chart? A. Germany B. England C. France D. Spain
Who signed the Magna Carta, which limited the power of the King? A.King John B.King Henry II C.King William I (Conqueror) D.Hugh Capet
What is an effect of the Black Death? A.The power of the Church increased B.There were not as many workers/ laborers, so peasant life got better C.Decrease in charity D.Helped to reinforce the feudal system
Which of the following best completes this chart? A. Monks preserved Greco-Arabic culture B. Monks kept all of this new knowledge to themselves C. Laid the foundation for the rise of universities in Europe Monasteries Monks translating ancient books into Latin ?????
Which of the following is missing from the feudal hierarchy? A.Plebeians B.Knights C.Land Owners D.Clergy Kings Lords ??????? Serfs
Who began the First Crusade? A.Pope Urban II B.Saladin C.Charlemagne D.Justinian
What did the Franks use to expand and extend their power? A.Diplomacy B.Military Power C.Alliance with Church D.Trade
Which of the following invaders came from Central Asia and went to Hungary? A.Angles B.Saxons C.Magyars D.Vikings
Who united most of England through the Battle of Hastings in 1066 A.D. A.Henry II B.Henry VIII C.William the Conqueror D.Joan of Arc
Who was the unifying factor for France during the Hundred Years War? A.Hugh Capet B.Henry II C.Ivan the Great D.Joan of Arc
Who conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453? A.Romans B.Franks C.Crusaders D.Ottoman Turks