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International Experience & Employability of African Graduates James Otieno Jowi Coordinator African Network for Internationalization of Education (ANIE)

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Presentation on theme: "International Experience & Employability of African Graduates James Otieno Jowi Coordinator African Network for Internationalization of Education (ANIE)"— Presentation transcript:

1 International Experience & Employability of African Graduates James Otieno Jowi Coordinator African Network for Internationalization of Education (ANIE) Moi University, Kenya Presentation at the EDULINK AUDIS Project, Maputo, Mozambique ( October 7-9, 2009)

2 Introduction Purpose of presentation Purpose of presentation Meaning of internationalization Meaning of internationalization International experience? International experience? At home/abroad At home/abroad Relating to employability Relating to employability Trends Trends What research says. What research says.

3 Internationalization of HE Means Different things Means Different things to different people to different people in different countries in different countries in different types of HEIs in different types of HEIs in different disciplines and sectors in different disciplines and sectors in different professions in different professions by different stakeholders by different stakeholders by different education actors, ( Knight,2009) by different education actors, ( Knight,2009)

4 Working definition Internationalization …….. ….is a process of integrating an international, intercultural, global dimension into the goals, teaching/learning, research, service delivery of higher education institutions and systems… (Knight, 2008) ….is a process of integrating an international, intercultural, global dimension into the goals, teaching/learning, research, service delivery of higher education institutions and systems… (Knight, 2008)

5 Why internationalize-Rationales Political Political Foreign Policy, National security, peace and mutual understanding Foreign Policy, National security, peace and mutual understanding Economic Economic Economic growth, competitiveness, labour market Economic growth, competitiveness, labour market Academic Academic Quality, Capacity Building, Status, Quality, Capacity Building, Status, (Research capacity- high on agenda of African universities) (Research capacity- high on agenda of African universities) Cultural/Social Cultural/Social Cultural identity, intercultural understanding Cultural identity, intercultural understanding

6 Rationales for students Specialized skills Specialized skills Better facilities/expertise Better facilities/expertise International experience International experience Broader world view Broader world view Language Language Employment opportunities Employment opportunities Curiosity/adventure Curiosity/adventure Reputation/prestige Reputation/prestige (Mobility is not a recent phenomenon)

7 International Experiences - at home (Only 1% of students go abroad) - Curriculum and programs - Curriculum and programs Teaching/learning process Teaching/learning process Extra-curricular activities Extra-curricular activities Liaison with local cultural/ethnic groups Liaison with local cultural/ethnic groups Research and scholarly activities Research and scholarly activities Visiting scholars Visiting scholars International Students International Students Virtual mobility Virtual mobility Open education and resources Open education and resources NB- S.Africa & Egypt are the leading destinations for inbound mobility in Africa

8 International Experiences - abroad - Student mobility - two way - Student mobility - two way Faculty/ scholar mobility-two way Faculty/ scholar mobility-two way Program/course delivery - joint, franchise, twin Program/course delivery - joint, franchise, twin Provider mobility - branch campus, virtual Provider mobility - branch campus, virtual Projects/ services -research, curriculum, benchmarking Projects/ services -research, curriculum, benchmarking Policy mobility Policy mobility N/B Kenya & Nigeria lead in outbound mobility of students (Open Doors/ Project Atlas)

9 Global student mobility & employability Defining global mobility: Defining global mobility: An internationally mobile student is a student having crossed a national border in order to study or to undertake other study-related activities for at least a certain unit of a study program or a certain period of time in the country they have moved to. (Richters/Teichler, 2006) Changing forms of mobility: distance education, virtual learning, branch campuses, and many others Changing forms of mobility: distance education, virtual learning, branch campuses, and many others Why is global student mobility important? Why is global student mobility important?

10 Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2007 Worldwide, there were over 2.9 million international students in 2006, a 3% increase over the previous year. Worldwide, there were over 2.9 million international students in 2006, a 3% increase over the previous year. By 2025, almost 8 million students are projected to be studying outside their home country. By 2025, almost 8 million students are projected to be studying outside their home country. Worldwide: A Growing Pie

11 Employability The value of [a students] international experience goes beyond purely the acquisition of language- it lies in the ability to see business and personal issues from other than your own cultural perspective - Charles Macleod, Pricewaterhouse, UK Coopers. The value of [a students] international experience goes beyond purely the acquisition of language- it lies in the ability to see business and personal issues from other than your own cultural perspective - Charles Macleod, Pricewaterhouse, UK Coopers. Increasing globalization and internationalization has heightened need for graduates with abilities to operate in culturally diverse contexts and with diverse skills……(Corossman & Clarke, 2009) Increasing globalization and internationalization has heightened need for graduates with abilities to operate in culturally diverse contexts and with diverse skills……(Corossman & Clarke, 2009)

12 What employers want degree of skills degree of skills Highly marketable work related skills Highly marketable work related skills CBI (2008) Research shows that CBI (2008) Research shows that -30% employers have problems with graduates on generic employability skills such as team working, communication, and problem solving -25% disappointed with graduates attitude to work -33% self-management -44% business awareness -49% foreign language skills -Employers are increasingly going global- thus need graduates from different countries/cultures. -Mismatch btw what market demands and what's offered in western market as fewer students gain international experience. -Skills deficit in graduates. -Enhancing employability skills (Archer & Davisson,2008).

13 The Global Competition for Talent Rapidly changing market for International students Rapidly changing market for International students Strategic approach – USA (CSHE,2009)…University of California...says that USA should double its international student enrolments from current 625, 000 to 1.25 m by 2020 Strategic approach – USA (CSHE,2009)…University of California...says that USA should double its international student enrolments from current 625, 000 to 1.25 m by 2020 Aim-to capitalize on the global pool of mobile students. Aim-to capitalize on the global pool of mobile students. Immigration of talented students and professionals enabled the USA to grow Immigration of talented students and professionals enabled the USA to grow Current shift…needs coherent higher education policy… Current shift…needs coherent higher education policy…

14 The unusual suspects: Malaysia: Attract 100,000 international students by 2010 Malaysia: Attract 100,000 international students by 2010 Jordan: Increase number of international student to 100,000 by Jordan: Increase number of international student to 100,000 by Singapore :Attract 100,000 by Singapore :Attract 100,000 by China: Attract 300,000 students by China: Attract 300,000 students by Japan: Goal to attract 1 million foreign students by 2025 (up from current 120,000). Japan: Goal to attract 1 million foreign students by 2025 (up from current 120,000).

15 Africa's Intellectual Diaspora Big resource Big resource Data? Data? Big risk Big risk Could be utilized Could be utilized Return to sender Return to sender Different efforts (Teferra,2008) Different efforts (Teferra,2008) Brain gain Brain gain Brain circulation Brain circulation Brain trust for Africa Brain trust for Africa A continuing risk A continuing risk Challenges in mitigation Challenges in mitigation

16 International Experience- African graduates Might mean different things Might mean different things Attained in different ways (formal & informal) Attained in different ways (formal & informal) Formal – may include academic training Formal – may include academic training Varying modes/qualifications Varying modes/qualifications Internationalization has been there since pre-colonial times Internationalization has been there since pre-colonial times Immense Contribution to Africa's development Immense Contribution to Africa's development Pioneer African graduates were trained abroad Pioneer African graduates were trained abroad Immediate post independence universities were very international Immediate post independence universities were very international ½ senior faculty have part of their training abroad ½ senior faculty have part of their training abroad Associated advantages Associated advantages

17 African graduates…..cont Prestigious qualifications Prestigious qualifications Great bulk trained at home…do they have international experience? Great bulk trained at home…do they have international experience? International employment International employment International organizations International organizations Multiculturalists/ plurality of viewpoints Multiculturalists/ plurality of viewpoints Different was of doing things Different was of doing things Networked society Networked society Wastage of African talent abroad- odd jobs Wastage of African talent abroad- odd jobs Rough terrain Rough terrain

18 African graduates …cont Employability locally Employability locally Influenced by several other factors Influenced by several other factors -Skills shortage- opportunities -Higher education –pedestal -Specialized areas. -Expanding lobour market -International agencies-locally -Labour market shrinking -Competition -Graduate level training- employment What degree- matters What degree- matters What about international experience (qualifications) from other African universities? What about international experience (qualifications) from other African universities? Change of degrees/degrees of change Change of degrees/degrees of change

19 New trends Rejuvenation of African HE Rejuvenation of African HE Changing rationales/ Changing destinations Changing rationales/ Changing destinations Renewed interests/ New partnerships- Europe, USA, China Renewed interests/ New partnerships- Europe, USA, China Challenges/risks/opportunities (brain-drain/commodification) Challenges/risks/opportunities (brain-drain/commodification) Intra-Africa mobility Intra-Africa mobility Expansion of the sector Expansion of the sector Africa's- Centers of excellence/ Specialized training Africa's- Centers of excellence/ Specialized training Supportive regional bodies/ Regional protocols e.g. SADC, EAC Supportive regional bodies/ Regional protocols e.g. SADC, EAC Harmonization of programs/systems Harmonization of programs/systems Regional labour mobility trends Regional labour mobility trends Historical imbalances…. Historical imbalances…. Internationalization & Africa's challenges? Internationalization & Africa's challenges? Development/MDGs Development/MDGs

20 Points to note Even though international experiences could enhance employability…… Even though international experiences could enhance employability…… Accreditation Accreditation Recognition Recognition Degree mills Degree mills Credentials evaluation/Comparability Credentials evaluation/Comparability Verification Verification Forgeries & falsifications Forgeries & falsifications Legal constraints Legal constraints International experience is necessary but not sufficient for employability International experience is necessary but not sufficient for employability No empirically established link between international experience & employability (Corossman & Clarke,2009)….causality No empirically established link between international experience & employability (Corossman & Clarke,2009)….causality Tiechler (2009)- international experience does not enhance employability/earning Tiechler (2009)- international experience does not enhance employability/earning Different contexts Different contexts Need for tracer studies of different types of graduates Need for tracer studies of different types of graduates

21 Common Agenda: Same players Another EDULINK Project Another EDULINK Project 8 African Universities involved 8 African Universities involved African Universities Develop Strategies to Address the Implications of Globalization African Universities Develop Strategies to Address the Implications of Globalization Aims to increase expertise of 8 African universities in developing strategies that will deliver graduates to tap global knowledge for local/regional development. Aims to increase expertise of 8 African universities in developing strategies that will deliver graduates to tap global knowledge for local/regional development. Relates closely/ almost synonymous with internationalization Relates closely/ almost synonymous with internationalization Includes six experts Includes six experts University leaders…….(leadership is crucial) University leaders…….(leadership is crucial) Self assessment of capacity Self assessment of capacity Development of strategies for internationalization Development of strategies for internationalization Pursuing academic excellence Pursuing academic excellence Will be published into a book/Shared experiences. Will be published into a book/Shared experiences. Continuity after end of project Continuity after end of project

22 African Network for Internationalization of Education (ANIE) A non-profit making, non-governmental, African network A non-profit making, non-governmental, African network committed to the advancement of high quality research, capacity building, information sharing and advocacy on internationalization of higher education with prime focus on Africa. committed to the advancement of high quality research, capacity building, information sharing and advocacy on internationalization of higher education with prime focus on Africa. Membership based Membership based

23 Constructing a network ANIE developed out of a project - Higher Education in Africa: The International Dimension ANIE developed out of a project - Higher Education in Africa: The International Dimension Comparative analysis of trends in internationalization of higher education in Africa. Comparative analysis of trends in internationalization of higher education in Africa. Book co-published AAU and CIHE, Boston College, USA. Book co-published AAU and CIHE, Boston College, USA. Co-editors-Damtew Teferra (CIHE) & Jane Knight (OISE) Co-editors-Damtew Teferra (CIHE) & Jane Knight (OISE) 12 African countries 12 African countries Revealing & pioneering work Revealing & pioneering work Senior/ young scholars Senior/ young scholars Cairo- NGG/NESI Cairo- NGG/NESI Exposure/Trainings Exposure/Trainings Gaps identified Gaps identified

24 Developments Project partners meeting in April 2008 decided on formation of network. Project partners meeting in April 2008 decided on formation of network. Partners requested Moi University, Kenya to host secretariat and provide staff Partners requested Moi University, Kenya to host secretariat and provide staff Founding documents developed Founding documents developed 1 st Annual Conference 1-4 Sept 2009, Moi University 1 st Annual Conference 1-4 Sept 2009, Moi University 2 nd Conference- 1 st week of Nov 2010, Makerere, Uganda…..welcome 2 nd Conference- 1 st week of Nov 2010, Makerere, Uganda…..welcome Membership & partnerships (IEASA, AAU, IAU,IUCEA, EAIE) Membership & partnerships (IEASA, AAU, IAU,IUCEA, EAIE) Virtual resource Virtual resource Research/Advocacy……, call for grants for research on internationalization Research/Advocacy……, call for grants for research on internationalization New Generation Group New Generation Group Dissemination/Publicity - IAU September issue, JSIE, portal, conferences Dissemination/Publicity - IAU September issue, JSIE, portal, conferences

25 Contacts African Network for Internationalization of Education (ANIE) Margaret Thatcher Library Building (LS03) Moi University P.O.Box 3900.Eldoret, Kenya. .


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