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GINA INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO GNSS AND EGNOS FOR ROAD PRICING Findings from the trials 1 st October 2010 Brussels GNSS for INnovative Road Applications.

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Presentation on theme: "GINA INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO GNSS AND EGNOS FOR ROAD PRICING Findings from the trials 1 st October 2010 Brussels GNSS for INnovative Road Applications."— Presentation transcript:

1 GINA INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO GNSS AND EGNOS FOR ROAD PRICING Findings from the trials 1 st October 2010 Brussels GNSS for INnovative Road Applications

2 CONTENTS 1.GINA concept 2.GINA exhaustive trial finding: Context and general description Charging related performances Distance and position performances Key-findings 3.GINA end-to-end trial status 4.Conclusions 21/02/2014Page 2PREPARATORY MEETING FOR WORKSHOP#1

3 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 3PRESENTATION TITLE VERDANA (9) GINA WORKSHOP#1 GINA MESSAGE GINA first findings prove, with trial results, that GNSS is a reliable tool for different RUC schemes. European GNSS (e.g. EGNOS) and other GNSS centered techniques proposed by GINA (e.g. geofencing based on position integrity) allow good performances with simple, affordable solution.

4 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 4 THE GINA CONSORTIUM GINA WORKSHOP#1 Consortium covering the whole value chain

5 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 5 THE GINA PROJECT. GINA WORKSHOP#1 FP7 project, co-financed by EC under 1 st Galileo Call FP7 GALILEO Call 1, Topic GALILEO Innovative GNSS-based Road Applications Not another proof of concept: large scale demonstrator of a GNSS-based RUC & VAS scheme using the Dutch ABvM system and requirements defined by real end users as a reference Project schedule: 24 months T0T0+24 Management & Quality Analysis of Applications / Services 1st Interim Review Trials 2nd Interim Review Conclusions and dissemination activities End of trials Conclusions T0+27 Extension. Presentation of new results

6 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo THE GINA CONCEPT Use of Geo-fencing process based on POSITION INTEGRITY to ensure reliability of Road User Charging scheme) (concept introduced for Civil Aviation SoL for which EGNOS is designed) 01/10/2010Page 6GINA WORKSHOP#4 1.Computation of position + bounding of position error (with a very high probability ~99.99%) 2.Vehicle charged only when 1 or more PLs (=error boundaries) totally inside the geo-object=> geo-fencing based on PLs (not just on calculated position). Highly reliable geo-fencing process precluding wrong identifications Error

7 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 7 GINA TRIALS OVERVIEW GINA WORKSHOP#1 Large-scale demonstrator at national scale (in the Netherlands) for RUC and VAS OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate how and with what performance European GNSS infrastructure (e.g. EGNOS) and other innovative GNSS-based technologies (e.g. use of position integrity) can enhance RUC schemes based on satellite positioning. 2 trials levels: No. VEHICLES PERIOD VEHICLES &DRIVERS VAS REFERENCE SYSTEM CANBUSEVALUATIONSCENARIOS 2 4 weeks Controlled by project NOYES GNSS performance Routes defined by project 1006 months Volunteers (ARVAL customers) YESNO Application levelUncontrolled, not fixed

8 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo CONTENTS 1.GINA concept 2.GINA exhaustive trial finding: Context and general description Charging related performances Distance and position performances Key-findings 3.GINA end-to-end trial status 4.Conclusions 21/02/2014Page 8GINA WORKSHOP#1

9 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 9 3 configurations of OBUs to assess performance (all of them implementing the described GINA solution): Assessment of performances by comparing system outputs and truth (thanks to a highly sophisticated trajectography system): Charging Performance of distance measurement Performance of Geo-Objects identification (wrong /mis- ID, distance accuracy within geo-objects) GNSS positioning performance (accuracy, integrity, availability) 2 campaigns: GMV vehicle (main source of data) Navteq vehicle (a different approach) EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS CONTEXT (I) GINA WORKSHOP#1 Configuration GPS only GPS+CANBUS (odometer) GPS+CANBUS (odometer)+EGNOS CANBUS (odometer) is only used for distance calculation and is not part of the positioning solution

10 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS CONTEXT (II) 21/02/2014Page 10 Route 1 – Motorway, urban Route 2 – Urban Route 3 – Urban, motorway Amsterdam The Hague Rotterdam Large number of narrow streets and numerous turns in urban roads Large motorway section with some small roads in urban environment. Some tunnels Urban roads. Some tall buildings and urban canyons. Some tunnels GINA WORKSHOP#1 Campaign: 5 th March 2010 to 5 th April test routes: realistic and challenging for GNSS 20 repetitions per route => statistically significant results Fully operational smart OBU with real time capabilities For better analysis flexibility (3 configurations) raw data registered in OBU and post-processed

11 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS CONTEXT (III) Performances in a non-urban environment have been also evaluated, analyzing a highway segment of 10 km. A huge amount of data has been collected. Additional specific cases of interest for RUC can be isolated and further analyses possible. Highway scenario

12 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS CONTEXT (IV) All anticipated routes completed the required number of times Some routes performed additional times where possible Large amount of data generated All data successfully recorded and stored 21/02/2014Page 12 Trial PlanActual Number of Journeys 60 (at least 20 on each route) 68 (Den Haag + 5, Rotterdam +3) Number of Routes33 Total driving time (hours) Number of position points obtained 324,000 (for analysis this figure x4) 438,861 (for analysis this figure x4) Approximate distance driven (km) Amsterdam 1640 Den Haag 694 Rotterdam Total 3492 Amsterdam 1504 Den Haag 923 Rotterdam Total 3721 Number of Geo- objects 4951 GINA WORKSHOP#1 Some figures

13 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS CONTEXT (V) 21/02/2014Page 13 GINA WORKSHOP#1 REFERENCE REQUIREMENTS IN RUC Requirements associated to the detection of objects are of major importance: 1.Common for all charging schemes 2.Major impact in charging 3.Errors (if they exist) would be very visible for the user

14 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS CONTEXT (VI) 21/02/2014Page 14 WHAT WE EVALUATE GINA WORKSHOP#1 Overall relative charging errors properly bounded Reliability of geo-object detection Accuracy of distance measurement Positioning performance Charging accuracy Charging integrity Probability of correctly detect ion Probability of wrong detection OverallInside geo- objects AccuracyIntegrityAvailability (and size of PLs) Discrete schemes (cordon- based, event- based …) Continuous (DBC) schemes

15 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo CONTENTS 1.GINA concept 2.GINA exhaustive trial finding: Context and general description Charging related performances Distance and position performances Key-findings 3.GINA end-to-end trial status 4.Conclusions 21/02/2014Page 15GINA WORKSHOP#1

16 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 16 OFFICIAL Geo-Objects (very similar to the ones used in ABvM trials) Cordon areas Highway segments (Challenging scenarios, such as parallel roads were part of the geo- objects list included in the routes) CHALLENGING Geo-Objects Small Geo-Objects, especially inside urban areas, tunnels Area Geo-Objects (e.g. nested geo-objects of different sizes in order to determine geo-object identification performance as a function of the geo-object size) GINA WORKSHOP#1 GEO-OBJECTS DETECTION (1/2)

17 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 17 MetricCalculation Mis-detection Incorrect Geoobject Identification, Where GEOOBJECT_X = 0 TRUTH_GEOOBJECT_X = 1 or Where GEOOBJECT_X = 1 TRUTH_GEOOBJECT_X = 0 A discrete variable: Correct detection or Mis-detection (i.e. undetected although it actually took place) Wrong detection (i.e. detected although it actually did not take place). GEO-OBJECTS DETECTION (2/2) 100% Official Geo-Objects detected by all OBU configurations 0% wrong identification of ALL Geo-Objects (official & challenging) thanks to the use of GINA geofencing technique, based on position integrity => key to protect users against overcharging! Key performance for any charging scheme In a discrete RUC system this would imply 0% charging error GINA WORKSHOP#1

18 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo DISTANCE-BASED CHARGING PERFORMANCE. HIGHWAY SCENARIO. 21/02/2014Page 18 Charging error (%) density function Charging error (%) cumulative distribution Mean charging deviation between -0.07% and % over all journeys. Maximum overcharging (for 99% of journeys) smaller than: 0.39% for GPS only solution 0.22% for EGNOS + CANBUS solution GINA WORKSHOP#1

19 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo DISTANCE-BASED CHARGING PERFORMANCE. ALL JOURNEYS. 21/02/2014Page 19PRESENTATION TITLE VERDANA (9) Mean charging deviation between -0.44% and -0.57% over all journeys. Overcharging (for 95% of journeys) smaller than: 1.01% for GPS only solution 0.23% for EGNOS+CANBUS solution GINA WORKSHOP#1 Charging error (%) density function Charging error (%) cumulative distribution In addition, 0% of overcharging can be guaranteed with very high probability if applying integrity techniques to the distance measurement but at the expenses of increasing the average charging error to about -1% (in line with ABvM specs).

20 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo DISTANCE-BASED CHARGING (MONTHLY INVOICES) 20 journeys per month Average Charging error -0.57% (for CANBUS) -0.44% (GPS only) Maximum overcharging 21/02/2014Page 20GINA WORKSHOP#1 CANBUSGPS only ALL routes 0.13%0.55% Excluding deep urban (Rotter.) 0.13%0.10% In line with ABvM Specs.

21 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo CONTENTS 1.GINA concept 2.GINA exhaustive trial finding: Context and general description Charging related performances Distance and position performances Key-findings 3.GINA end-to-end trial status 4.Conclusions 21/02/2014Page 21GINA WORKSHOP#1

22 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo DISTANCE ACCURACY 21/02/2014Page 22 MetricDescriptionCalculation Relative Distance Deviation Relative deviation in the overall calculated length of the journey between the truth and test devices. (OBU distance– reference distance) / reference distance * 100% GINA WORKSHOP#1 Distance error (%) density function Distance error (%) cumulative distribution CANBUS odometer improves distance performance Mean distance error (either absolute or journey- based) is below 0.3% for all solutions (0.05% with CANBUS) A Distance-based Charging scheme could benefit from a connection to a CANBUS although GNSS only solution provides satisfactory performances

23 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo GNSS POSITIONING PERFORMANCE. HIGHWAY SCENARIO. 21/02/2014Page 23 Horizontal position error cumulative distribution Horizontal protection level cumulative distribution Position errors much smaller 3m position error (at 95%) with EGNOS. EGNOS provides substantial accuracy improvement in clean environments (reduced multipath) All Protection levels less than 7m 50% of the time EGNOS based PL smaller than 15 m 99% of the time EGNOS improves integrity performances in clean environments EGNOS integrity risk 3x10 -4 in highways (RAIM integrity risk 1x10 -3 in all scenarios) GINA WORKSHOP#1

24 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo CONTENTS 1.GINA concept 2.GINA exhaustive trial finding: Context and general description Charging related performances Distance and position performances Key-findings 3.GINA end-to-end trial status 4.Conclusions 21/02/2014Page 24 GINA WORKSHOP#1

25 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 25 KEY FINDINGS OF EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS (1/4) CHARGING PERFORMANCES 100% Official Geo-Objects detected 0% wrong identification of ALL Geo-Objects (official & challenging) thanks to the use of GINA geo-fencing technique, based on position integrity For a discrete RUC system this would imply 0% charging error Distance based mean charging deviation in line with expected performances based on AbVM in all scenarios; much better in highway scenario GINA WORKSHOP#1

26 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 26 KEY FINDINGS OF EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS (2/4) POSITIONING PERFORMANCE ACCURACY: The configuration using EGNOS was the most accurate for the 99th percentile and also had the lowest maximum position error. In addition, in highway scenario EGNOS improves susbtantially accuracy (from 6 to 3 m at 95%). RAIM techniques: Urban environments introduce large errors due to local effects. GNSS can benefit from RAIM techniques. In particular, RAIM integrity is the most suitable for the GINA proposed solution (geofencing based on position integrity). GINA WORKSHOP#1

27 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 27 KEY FINDINGS OF EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS (3/4) ENVIRONMENT (urban/highway) substantially affects performance but good results can be achieved in all scenarios. GINA SOLUTION (geofencing based on integrity) plays a key role for a reliable (protecting the user) detection of Geo-objects CANBUS (odometer) role: decrease distance errors by a factor of 5 to 10 but GNSS only solutions seem enough for foreseable requirements Appropriate definition of Geo-objects is relevant for optimising charging performances Proposed technology provides a valid solution for road/urban and different charging schemes (continuous/discrete) fulfilling the expected performances GINA WORKSHOP#1

28 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 28 KEY FINDINGS OF EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS (4/4) Selection of technology for a reliable RUC: 1. Definition of performance requirements is a must to procure, implement, certify and operate a RUC (current CEN TC 278 WG1 objective). They have to cover at least overall charging errors and detection of geo-objects. 2. Cost-efficiency considerations and other related issues 3.Appropriate Definition of Geo-Object. Location, size (length, width), type (cordons (vs. corridors) where possible) 4.Make trials prior to decision GINA WORKSHOP#1

29 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo CONTENTS 1.GINA concept 2.GINA exhaustive trial finding: Context and general description Charging related performances Distance and position performances Key-findings 3.GINA end-to-end trial status 4.Conclusions 21/02/2014Page 29GINA WORKSHOP#1

30 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 30 GINA. END2END TRIALS No. Vehicles PeriodVehicles& drivers VASReference Systems CANBUSEvaluationScenarios months Volunteers (ARVAL customers) YESNO Application level Uncontrolled, not fixed OBJECTIVES 1.Functionality/usage analysis: Overall assessment of capabilities of the system from different perspectives Capability to generate invoices, Evaluation of drivers reaction and feedback, Provisioning of added-value services (PAYD, traffic information generation…) Mobility-related issues etc. 2.Data analysis: exhaustive performance analysis for those variables with no need of a reference system Capability of getting repeatable results for same conditions Variability of average cost per km in different geo-objects and circumstances Etc. GINA WORKSHOP#1

31 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 31 GINA. END2END TRIALS The DRIVERS => 100 volunteers Automatic downloading of data recorded to Palview GMVs platform, making data available for analysis No post-processing: geo-objects defined considering driving habits of drivers and programmed into OBUs (cordons + segments) On-going. Until December 2010 Confidential GINA WORKSHOP#1

32 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 32 GINA. END2END TRIALS Geo-object typeapproximate sizeDescriptionProsConsType of analysischarge rate Currently defined end2end geo- objects - small to medium road segments ~500m (length) Road segments of known length (map data) with only one possible entrance and one possible exit Length known Too small to gather sufficient charging data Geo object identification (based on size of protection levels) Distance measurement analysis Limited analysis of accuracy of charging High Larger Zones/cordons ~5km (radius) Area encompassing a city e.g. Amsterdam, Hague, Rotterdam and Utrecht May gather large amount of data inside the geo- object No "truth" available for comparison Driver reaction based on derived charges and bills low 4 Municipalities identified as charging zones – large geo- objects Utrecht Den Haag Rotterdam Nijmegen GINA WORKSHOP#1

33 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 33 GINA. END2END TRIALS The TOOLS GINA WORKSHOP#1

34 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 34 GINA. END2END TRIALS FUNCTIONALITY / USAGE ANALYSIS. SURVEY GINA WORKSHOP#1

35 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 35 GINA. END2END TRIALS FUNCTIONALITY / USAGE ANALYSIS. SURVEY GINA WORKSHOP#1

36 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 36 GINA. END2END TRIALS FUNCTIONALITY / USAGE ANALYSIS. SURVEY GINA WORKSHOP#1

37 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 37 GINA. END2END TRIALS FUNCTIONALITY / USAGE ANALYSIS. SURVEY GINA WORKSHOP#1

38 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 38 GINA. END2END TRIALS FUNCTIONALITY / USAGE ANALYSIS. SURVEY GINA WORKSHOP#1

39 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 39 GINA. END2END TRIALS FUNCTIONALITY / USAGE ANALYSIS. SURVEY GINA WORKSHOP#1

40 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 40 GINA. END2END TRIALS FUNCTIONALITY / USAGE ANALYSIS. SURVEY GINA WORKSHOP#1

41 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 41 GINA. END2END TRIALS DATA ANALYSIS Performance analysis of data not needing a reference system Evaluation and assessment of data coming from volunteers OBUs 2 configurations No reference: gathering statistics and, where possible, comparison of GINA OBU with truth from Exhaustive trials or map data ConfigurationDescription GGPS EGPS+EGNOS GINA WORKSHOP#1

42 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo CONTENTS 1.GINA concept 2.GINA exhaustive trial finding: Context and general description Charging related performances Distance and position performances Key-findings 3.GINA end-to-end trial status 4.Conclusions 21/02/2014Page 42GINA WORKSHOP#1

43 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 43 CONCLUSIONS 1/2 Exhaustive trial results confirmed that GNSS is a reliable tool for different RUC schemes. GINA proposed technology allow distance charging with good performances and a simple, affordable solution. European GNSS (e.g. EGNOS) and other GNSS centered techniques improve performances and reliability Additional analyses are in progress for E2E trial results. They will be presented in next GINA workshop (Q1 2011) GINA WORKSHOP#1

44 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo GINA solution is suitable for: Discrete and distance based RUC Road and Urban With no need of cartography Simple / cheap OBU Guaranteed performance Thin, Smart and Fat architectures possible Tested on ABvM system (NL) specifications CONCLUSIONS 2/2 GINA WORKSHOP#1

45 Thank you

46 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 46 Average Relative Distance Deviation (for Official Geo-Objects) DescriptionCalculation Useful for understanding whether OBUs likely to overestimate or underestimate distance travelled in chargeable Geo-Objects (impact on overcharging or undercharging) (Dist-Rdist)/Rdist * 100% GEO-OBJECTS. DISTANCE MEASUREMENT MetricGPS onlyGPS + CANBUS EGNOS + CANBUS Min-15.69%-16.76%-16.86% Max3.41%0.32%0.20% Absolute Mean -5.05%-4.46%-4.47% Journey Mean -2.33%-2.29%-2.28% St. Dev.4.43%3.43%3.44% 50%-0.15%-0.20%-0.13% 95%2.33%0.13%0.06% Distance error (%) density function Distance error (%) cumulative distribution CANBUS odometer improves distance performance No journey distance error with CANBUS exceeds +1% All solutions tend to underestimate due to geo-object shape and size, missed distance at entry/exit (associated to identification) and environmental conditions (e.g. urban canyons, tunnels…) GINA WORKSHOP#1

47 GNSS for Innovative road Applications Companys logo 21/02/2014Page 47 KEY FINDINGS OF EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS (2/5) Role of: Achieved Performance (w/o CANBUS) CANBUSPosition IntegrityEGNOS Distance Accuracy (mean) 0.3%Improves to 0.05% No relevant No Mis-Detection of Objects 100% No relevant Improvement for demanding geo- objects in clean environment Wrong Detection of Geo-Objects 0% No relevant Key in all scenariosGood for highway scenario Average Charging Error (monthly invoice) -0.44%No major impact No relevant Maximum Overcharging (monthly invoice) 0.55% 0.10% (no urban) Improves to 0.13% Key in all scenarios Improvement in clean environment GINA WORKSHOP#1


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