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Spacecraft Help Us Explore Space

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Presentation on theme: "Spacecraft Help Us Explore Space"— Presentation transcript:

1 Spacecraft Help Us Explore Space
Moon Missions Orbiting Earth U.S. vs Soviet Union 1st Satellite in 1957 1st human in space 1961 Space Stations Other Types Satillite July 20,1969 First man on the Moon Mir Soviet Union Skylab USA Spacecraft International Space Station Spacecrafts to other Worlds Flybys Combining Missions Orbiters Landers & Probes

2 Space Race: USA vs. Soviet Union
Rockets to deliver nuclear bombs across the world. War would begin and end suddenly, decisively, without warning. As the Space Race began, the US and Soviet Union were building rockets. The United States favored bombers Soviets preferred missiles this gave them lead in rocket technology. A rocket able to carry a bomb across the globe also could be used to loft machines and men into orbit. The United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a long competition to develop rockets for both warfare and the exploration of space. Space Race effectively began after the Soviet launch of Sputnik 1 on 4 October 1957

3 The First Satellites November 3, 1957 Sputnik 2 pressurized container
1957 The Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the first artificial Earth satellite. "Sputnik" is the Russian word for "Traveler.“ November 3, 1957 Sputnik 2 pressurized container Laika a dog Laika lived 8 days 1958 The United States launches its first satellite, Explorer I. Discovers radiation belt around Earth January 2, 1959: First to Orbit Sun 1. Russian Luna 1 2. Hit the Moon 3. Misses; flung out into space 4. Orbits the Sun September 13, 1959: Impact on the Moon Russian Luna 2 hit the Moon. October 4, 1959 Luna 3 photographs 70% the Moon's surface

4 First Satellites Continued
July 14, 1965: First Images of Mars Mariner 4 No sign of the famous "canals" and no evidence of life. April 1, 1960: First Weather Satellite 1. Tiros 1: first successful weather satellite 2. Launched by the United States 3. Two television cameras 4. Operational for 78 days June 2, 1966: Surveyor 1 First American spacecraft to soft-land on the moon. 63 hours and 36 minutes 9 miles off its target in the Oceanus Procellarum. Transmitted more than 11,000 high-resolution photographs before its energy sources were depleted. February 3, 1966: First Moon Landing Luna 9 soft-landing Transmitted pictures of the Moon's surface Moon's surface strong enough to support weight of a large spacecraft.

5 First Men in Space SERGEI V. ILYUSHIN, JR. May have been first man in Space. April 12, 1961 First Man in Space Cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin The Vostok 1 One orbit in 108 minutes The flight lasted only one hour and 48 minutes May 5, 1961 First American in Space On May 5, 1961, Astronaut Alan Shepard Lasted 15-minutes Experienced about 5 minutes of "weightlessness“ Tested the maneuvering capability of his Mercury capsule February 20, 1962: First American in Orbit John H. Glenn Atlas D rocket 3 complete orbits 4 hours and 56 minutes. March 18, 1965: First Space Walk Commander Pavel I. Belyayeu and Pilot Alexei A. Leonov aboard Voskhod 2. Alexei Leonov tethered space walk 12 minutes.

6 Landing on The Moon July 20, 1969: First Manned Landing Apollo 11
Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, Jr. February 3, 1966:First Landing on the Moon 1. Luna 9 2. Demonstrated that the Moon's surface was strong enough to support the weight of a large spacecraft. June 2, 1966: First US Spacecraft on the Moon 1. Surveyor 1 2. 63 hours and 36 minutes 3. 9 miles off its target 4. Transmitted more than 11,000 photographs December 21, 1968: First Manned Moon Orbit 1. Apollo 8 2. Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr. and William A. Anders 3. 10 orbits on its 6-day mission.

7 Objects in Earth Orbit Skylab: May 14, 1973
Orbit was 270 miles above Earth. Three different Apollo crews May 25 to June 21, 1973 July 28 to September 24, 1973 November 16, 1973 to February 8, 1974 July 11, 1979, Skylab re-entered the Earth's atmosphere over western Australia. February 19, 1986: Mir (Means world and peace in Russian) 1. First consistently inhabited long-term research station in space. 2. Internationally accessible 3. Mir was assembled over 10yr period 4. March 23, 2001: deliberately de-orbited, and broke apart during atmospheric re-entry. 1. The International Space Station (ISS) is a manned research space facility that is being assembled in orbit around the Earth. 2. ISS construction began on November 20, 1998 3. US, Russia, and Contracts with 15 other countries.

8 Travel to other Worlds Orbiters Landers & Probes Flybys
Obstacles for us in Space Air, water, & supplies Harsh conditions Crewless Craft’s Advantages No risk to life Less expensive Craft designed to go into an objects orbit. Mariner 9 1st Mars Orbiter 1971 Landers & Probes Flybys Designed to land Craft that studies then destroyed Pass planets and other objects without orbiting them Viking 2 on Mars 1976 Mariner 4 1964 Pic from Pathfinder of Mars' Surface Any craft that lands is a lander such as Surveyor 1 Mariner 6 & 7 1969

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