Presentation on theme: "Spacecraft Help Us Explore Space"— Presentation transcript:
1 Spacecraft Help Us Explore Space Moon MissionsOrbiting EarthU.S. vs Soviet Union1st Satellite in 19571st human in space1961Space StationsOther TypesSatilliteJuly 20,1969 First manon the MoonMirSoviet UnionSkylabUSASpacecraftInternationalSpace StationSpacecrafts toother WorldsFlybysCombining MissionsOrbitersLanders &Probes
2 Space Race: USA vs. Soviet Union Rockets to deliver nuclear bombs across the world.War would begin and end suddenly, decisively, without warning.As the Space Race began, the US and Soviet Union were building rockets.The United States favored bombersSoviets preferred missiles this gave them lead in rocket technology.A rocket able to carry a bomb across the globe also could be used to loft machines and men into orbit.The United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a long competition to develop rockets for both warfare and the exploration of space.Space Race effectively began after the Soviet launch of Sputnik 1 on 4 October 1957
3 The First Satellites November 3, 1957 Sputnik 2 pressurized container 1957 The Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the first artificial Earth satellite. "Sputnik" is the Russian word for "Traveler.“November 3, 1957 Sputnik 2pressurized containerLaika a dogLaika lived 8 days1958 The United States launches its first satellite, Explorer I. Discovers radiation belt around EarthJanuary 2, 1959: First to Orbit Sun1. Russian Luna 12. Hit the Moon3. Misses; flung out into space4. Orbits the SunSeptember 13, 1959: Impact on the Moon Russian Luna 2 hit the Moon.October 4, 1959 Luna 3 photographs 70% the Moon's surface
4 First Satellites Continued July 14, 1965: First Images of MarsMariner 4No sign of the famous "canals" and no evidence of life.April 1, 1960: First Weather Satellite1. Tiros 1: first successful weather satellite2. Launched by the United States3. Two television cameras4. Operational for 78 daysJune 2, 1966: Surveyor 1First American spacecraft to soft-land on the moon.63 hours and 36 minutes9 miles off its target in the Oceanus Procellarum.Transmitted more than 11,000 high-resolution photographs before its energy sources were depleted.February 3, 1966: First Moon LandingLuna 9 soft-landingTransmitted pictures of the Moon's surfaceMoon's surface strong enough to support weight of a large spacecraft.
5 First Men in SpaceSERGEI V. ILYUSHIN, JR. May have been first man in Space.April 12, 1961 First Man in SpaceCosmonaut Yuri A. GagarinThe Vostok 1One orbit in 108 minutesThe flight lasted only one hour and 48 minutesMay 5, 1961 First American in Space On May 5, 1961, Astronaut Alan ShepardLasted 15-minutesExperienced about 5 minutes of "weightlessness“Tested the maneuvering capability of his Mercury capsuleFebruary 20, 1962: First American in OrbitJohn H. GlennAtlas D rocket3 complete orbits4 hours and 56 minutes.March 18, 1965: First Space WalkCommander Pavel I. Belyayeu and Pilot Alexei A. Leonov aboard Voskhod 2.Alexei Leonov tethered space walk12 minutes.
6 Landing on The Moon July 20, 1969: First Manned Landing Apollo 11 Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, Jr.February 3, 1966:First Landing on the Moon1. Luna 92. Demonstrated that the Moon's surface was strong enough to support the weight of a large spacecraft.June 2, 1966: First US Spacecraft on the Moon 1. Surveyor 12. 63 hours and 36 minutes3. 9 miles off its target4. Transmitted more than 11,000 photographsDecember 21, 1968: First Manned Moon Orbit 1. Apollo 82. Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr. and William A. Anders3. 10 orbits on its 6-day mission.
7 Objects in Earth Orbit Skylab: May 14, 1973 Orbit was 270 miles above Earth.Three different Apollo crewsMay 25 to June 21, 1973July 28 to September 24, 1973November 16, 1973 to February 8, 1974July 11, 1979, Skylab re-entered the Earth's atmosphere over western Australia.February 19, 1986: Mir (Means world and peace in Russian)1. First consistently inhabited long-term research station in space.2. Internationally accessible3. Mir was assembled over 10yr period4. March 23, 2001: deliberately de-orbited, and broke apart during atmospheric re-entry.1. The International Space Station (ISS) is a manned research space facility that is being assembled in orbit around the Earth.2. ISS construction began on November 20, 19983. US, Russia, and Contracts with 15 other countries.
8 Travel to other Worlds Orbiters Landers & Probes Flybys Obstacles for us in SpaceAir, water, & suppliesHarsh conditionsCrewless Craft’s AdvantagesNo risk to lifeLess expensiveCraft designed to go into an objects orbit.Mariner 9 1stMars Orbiter1971Landers & ProbesFlybysDesigned to land Craft that studies then destroyedPass planets and other objectswithout orbiting themViking 2 on Mars1976Mariner 41964Pic from Pathfinderof Mars' SurfaceAny craft that lands is a landersuch as Surveyor 1Mariner 6 & 71969