Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 1-Rocket Science"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 1-Rocket Science Rocket- a machine that uses escaping gas from burning fuel to moveNASA- the National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationThrust- the pushing or pulling force exerted by the engine of an aircraft or rocketTsiolkovsky helped develop rocket theory. Goddard developed the first rockets
2 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 1- Rocket Science 5. Rockets carry oxygen so that their fuel can be burned. 6. NASA coordinated the efforts of many research teams, which led to the rapid development of a variety of rocket designs. 7. Newton’s law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. When hot gases rush out of the bottom of a rocket, the rocket moves in the opposite direction.
3 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 1- Rocket Science 8. A rocket must overcome Earth’s gravity to reach escape velocity. 9. Orbital velocity is the speed and direction an object must travel to stay in orbit around a body in space. 10. Escape velocity is the speed and direction that an object must travel to break away from a planet’s or moon’s gravitational attraction.
4 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 1- Rocket Science 11. The Cold War accelerated the US space program because World War II led to an arms race between the US and the Soviet Union, which encouraged competition between two super powers to achieve superiority in space.
5 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 2- Artificial Satellites Artificial satellite- any human made object placed in orbit around a body in spaceLow Earth orbit- an orbit less than 1,500 km above the Earth’s surfaceGeostationary orbit- an orbit that is about 36,000 km above the Earth’s surface and in which a satellite is above a fixed spot on the equator
6 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 2- Artificial Satellites 4. Communication satellites relay information from one point on Earth’s surface to another. Information from one location is transmitted to a communications satellite. The satellite then sends the information to another location on Earth. 5. Satellites in the EOS program are designed to work together so that many different types of data can be integrated. 6. In a low Earth orbit, the speed of a satellite is faster than the rotational speed of the Earth.
7 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 2- Artificial Satellites 7. Sputnik 1 was the first satellite placed in orbit. 8. Satellites benefit human society because they relay communications, help make accurate weather forecasts, and study the environmental change using remote sensing. 9. The Explorer 1 was the first satellite launched by the US. 10. LEO is much closer to the earth than GEO. Satellites in LEO are often used for studying the Earth in detail. Satellites in GEO are often used for communications and navigation.
8 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 2- Artificial Satellites 11. The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses a network of 27 satellites that sends signals to the Earth. A GPS receiver interprets the signals from four satellites and determines the location of the user based on the amount of time it takes the signals to reach the receiver. Using that information, the receiver can determine the position of the user using triangulation.
9 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 3- Space Probes 1. Space Probe- an uncrewed vehicle that carries scientific instruments into space to collect scientific data 2. The Magellan mission showed that, in many ways, the surface of Venus is similar to the surface of Earth. 3. The Mars Pathfinder mission found evidence that water once flowed across the surface of Mars.
10 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 3- Space Probes 4. The mission of the Stardust probe is to gather samples from a comet’s tail and return them to Earth. 5. The Viking missions sent images of dry water channels on the surface of Mars. 6. Venera 9 recorded information about the surface and atmosphere of Venus. 7. Galileo discovered that two of Jupiter’s moons have magnetic fields.
11 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 3- Space Probes 8. Venus and Mars have surface features that are similar to Earth’s. In addition, the high levels of CO2 in Venus’s atmosphere produce a severe greenhouse effect. This may help us understand the greenhouse effect on Earth. 9. The Pioneer and Voyager programs explored the outer solar system. 10. NASA’s new strategy of “faster, cheaper, and better” seeks to create space-probe missions that are smaller than those of the past.
12 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 3- Space Probes 11. The Cassini Mission explored Saturn’s moons. 12. Stardust space probe, launched in 1999, was the first probe to focus only on a comet. 13. Deep Space 1 is the New Millennium program. Its purpose is to test new technologies that can be used in the future.
13 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 4- People in Space Space shuttle- a reusable space vehicle that takes off like a rocket and lands like an airplane.Space station- a long-term orbiting platform from which other vehicles can be launched or scientific research can be carried out.The main parts of the shuttle are the orbiter, the liquid-fuel tank, and the solid-fuel booster.
14 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 4- People in Space 4. Russians and Americans are making contributions to the ISS. The Russians are supplying a service module, docking modules, life-support and research modules, and transportation to and from the station. The Americans are providing lab modules, the supporting frame, solar panels, living quarters, and a biomedical laboratory.
15 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 4- People in Space 5. Space-age spinoffs are technologies that were developed for the space program but are now used in everyday life. 6. In 1961, the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person in space. 7. In 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first person on the moon. 8. During the 1970’s the U.S. focused on developing the space shuttle. The Soviets focused on developing space stations.
16 Chapter 22- Exploring Space Lesson 4- People in Space 9. The U.S., Russia, and 14 other countries are currently developing the International Space Station. 10. There have been many scientific, economic, and social benefits of the space program. 11. Skylab was the first space station for the U.S. It was a science and engineering lab used to conduct a wide variety of scientific studies.