Presentation on theme: "SUMMARY 1.Productive process characterization 2.Health risks from hazardous chemical agents 3.Prevention measures 4.Information, formation, consultation."— Presentation transcript:
SUMMARY 1.Productive process characterization 2.Health risks from hazardous chemical agents 3.Prevention measures 4.Information, formation, consultation and participation 5.Personal protective equipment 6.Accidents, incidents and emergencies
Raw material preparation Treatment Machinery work Assembly Finish
Raw material preparation Barking – take off the trunk bark Sawmill – saw cut operation
Raw material preparation Retesting – trunk double cut with a pre determined length Thicknessing – reducing boards thickness
Raw material preparation Alignment – face preparing to turn it parallel to other face
Raw material preparation During the operations described till now result several wood wastes, such as wood dust, bark, sawdust and wood shaving.wood dust
Treatment (Impregnation or preservation) To make wood with larger durability and greater resistance to fungus and insects Impregnant use (aqueous chromium and/or copper salts) in autoclave or tanks Control of treatment duration, temperature and pressure
Treatment (Impregnation or preservation) During the treatment operations are used aqueous chromium, copper and/or arsenic salts.
Machinery work Drawing – wood pieces were saw transversely to obtain different lengths Thicknessing – reducing boards thickness Calibration – make boards with the same thickness Rigging – faces and corners of one wood piece are planed true and smooth
Machinery work Profiling – operation in which are obtained pieces with well shaped profiles along the corners and/or top/bottom Milling – making at surface or corners profiles with defined contour Drilling – wood pieces are drilled
Machinery work During these operations result several wood wastes, such as wood dust and wood shaving.wood dust wood shaving
Assembly Linking several pieces to obtain de final product Gluing Application of metallic or plastic elements
Assembly From these operations result wood dust, and dangerous substances wastes, such as isocyanates, toluene and formaldehyde.
Finish Bleaching – use of bleaching agents such as peroxides, acids and bases, to make wood pieces more clear than originally Stain application – applying by immersing, pulverization or brush, organic or aqueous colorants to give wood the desired colour
Finish Patching – application of bitumen to correct same wood defects and standardize the surface Grinding – manual or mechanical operation to thinning or finish a wood piece Lacquering – Electrostatic painting process, with the purpose of cover the wood with a term hardenable polymer pellicle
Finish Varnishing – Varnish, ink or lakes application, by imersing, pulverization, rolls, curtain, etc. Drying – Coating pellicle drying with UV radiation, in order to decrease the drying duration and the fast stacking of parts Coating with melamine or laminate panels – plate consisting of a set of paper sheets impregnated with thermosetting resins and linked together by heat and pressure for wood coating.
Finish From these operations result wood dust, and dangerous substances wastes, such as toluene, xylene and methanol.
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS Many substances found in the woodworking industries are hazardous to the health of the workers. The main health risks described for this sector are asthma and dermatitis. Other risks are related to effects on liver, kidney and central nervous system. Some wood dusts are carcinogenic. Some chemicals used are toxic for reproduction.
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS HOW MIGHT WORKERS BE EXPOSED? - Breathing in vapours, gases, mist or dust; - Contact with the skin; - Contact with the eyes; - Swallowing (accidental, non hygienic behaviour); - Skin puncture (rare - accidents with punction instruments)
Results from mechanical action on the wood It is an hazard present throughout the all production process phases. Wood dust (from softwood, hardwood and wood composites) HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS
Solvents (in varnish, paint, thinners, adhesive, stripper, stain, wood preservative) Production Stage: finishing and assembling operations Examples of dangerous chemical agents: Toluene, Xylene and Methanol HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS
Glues and paints (Isocyanate-based products, eg 2-pack (2K) paints, varnishes, adhesives,epoxy systems) Production Stage: finishing and assembling operations Examples of dangerous chemical agents: Isocyanates, formaldehyde HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS
Preservatives (organic solvent or water based) Production Stage: preservation treatment Examples of dangerous chemical agents: Copper and chromium salts HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS
Chemical agentProduction stage presenceHealth risk WOOD DUST Hardwood, softwood and wood composites All stages of productionCan cause asthma and dermatitis Hardwood dust can cause nasal cancer SOLVENTS Toluene, xylene, methanolFinishing (painting, varnishing, cleaning) and assembly Liver or kidney damage Central nervous system effects, dermatitis PAINTS AND GLUES Isocyanates, formaldehydeFinishing (painting), assemblyAsthma, dermatitis WOOD PRESERVATIVES Solvent or water based products Pre-treatment, finishingDermatitis, Central nervous system effects HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS Woodworking industry
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS WOOD DUST Effects on the safety of workers - Risks of fire and explosion Effects on the health of workers - eye and skin irritation - dermatitis - respiratory system effects (including asthma) - Nasal cancer (hardwood dust)
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS WOOD DUST Routes of exposure - inhalation (most relevant) By breathing in a wood dust containing working environment - eye or skin contact Through contact with wood dust (in the environment or not)
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS WOOD DUST Signs and symptoms of exposure Acute exposure: can result in eye and skin irritation, asthma, erythema, blistering, erosion and secondary infections of the skin, redness, scaling, itching, and vesicular dermatitis. Chronic exposure: can result in dermatitis reactions, asthma, pneumonitis, and coughing, wheezing, fever and the other signs and symptoms associated with chronic bronchitis. Chronic exposure may also result in nasal cancer.
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS WOOD DUST EXPOSURE LIMITS European legislation Hardwood dust – 5 mg/m 3 (Dir 90/394/EEC) Note: Measured or calculated in relation to a reference period of eight hours. Inhalable fraction; if hardwood dusts are mixed with other wood dusts, the limit value shall apply to all wood dusts present in that mixture. Other references Each European country may have established legal or normative OELVs, some based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS SOLVENTS (TOLUENE, XYLENE and METHANOL) Present mostly in finishing and assembly stages Effects on the safety of workers - Risks of fire and explosion Principal effects on the health of workers - upper respiratory system effects - central nervous system (CNS) effects - eye irritation - visual disturbances that can result in blindness (methanol) - serious injury threat to the CNS (methanol) - cumulative poison (methanol)
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS SOLVENTS (TOLUENE, XYLENE and METHANOL) Routes of exposure - inhalation (most relevant) By breathing in a solvent containing working environment - eye or skin contact and absorption Through direct contact with the solvent - ingestion By accidental swallowing
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS SOLVENTS TOLUENE Signs and symptoms of exposure to TOLUENE Acute exposure: may include fatigue, confusion, headache, dizziness and drowsiness. Peculiar skin sensations (e. g. pins and needles) or numbness may be produced. Very high concentrations may cause unconsciousness and death. Chronic exposure: Liver and kidney damage may occur. reports describe anemia, decreased blood cell count and bone marrow hypoplasia. Repeated or prolonged contact has a defatting action, causing drying, redness, dermatitis. Exposure to toluene may affect the developing fetus. XnF
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS TOLUENE SOLVENTS - TOLUENE EXPOSURE LIMITS European legislation (DIR 2006/15/EC – second list of indicative occupational exposure limit values) 192 mg/m 3 or 50 ppm (8 hours/day exposure) 384 mg/m 3 or 100 ppm (short-term exposure) (skin absorption is significant) Note Each European country may have established other legal or normative OELVs XnF
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS SOLVENTS XYLENE Signs and symptoms of exposure to XYLENE Acute exposure: include headache, fatigue, irritability, lassitude, nausea, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and motor incoordination and impairment of equilibrium. Flushing, redness of the face, a sensation of increased body heat, increased salivation, tremors, dizziness, confusion, and cardiac irritability have also been reported. Chronic exposure: may include conjunctivitis; dryness of the nose, throat, and skin; dermatitis; and kidney and liver damage XnF
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS XYLENE SOLVENTS - XYLENE EXPOSURE LIMITS European legislation (DIR 2000/39/EC first list of indicative occupational exposure limit values ) 221 mg/m 3 or 50 ppm (8 hours/day exposure) 442 mg/m 3 or 100 ppm (short-term exposure) (skin absorption is significant) Note Each European country may have established other legal or normative OELVs XnF
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS METHANOL Signs and symptoms of exposure to METHANOL Acute exposure: may include headache, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, blindness, coma and death. Chronic exposure: Marked impairment of vision has been reported. Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause skin irritation SOLVENTS FT
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS METHANOL SOLVENTS - METHANOL EXPOSURE LIMITS European legislation (DIR 2006/15/EC – second list of indicative occupational exposure limit values) 260 mg/m 3 or 200 ppm (8 hours/day exposure) (skin absorption is significant) Note Each European country may have established other legal or normative OELVs FT
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS PAINTS AND GLUES (ISOCYANATE-BASED PRODUCTS, FORMALDEHYDE) Present mostly in finishing and assembly stages Effects on the safety of workers - Risks of fire Principal effects on the health of workers - upper respiratory system effects - eye and skin irritation - dermatitis - respiratory system effects (including asthma) - possible carcinogenic effect of some compounds
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS PAINTS AND GLUES (ISOCYANATE-BASED PRODUCTS, FORMALDEHYDE) Routes of exposure - inhalation By breathing in a contaminated working environment - eye or skin contact and absorption - ingestion
PAINTS AND GLUES ISOCYANATE COMPOUNDS Signs and symptoms of exposure to ISOCYANATE COMPOUNDS Acute exposure: irritation of skin and mucous membranes ( resulting runny nose, sore throat and coughing) chest tightness and difficulty of breathing. Chronic exposure: Occupational asthma, other lung damages Skin allergic dermatitis Some isocyanate compounds are described as potential carcinogens HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS Xn OROR T OROR
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS ISOCYANATE COMPOUNDS PAINTS AND GLUES - ISOCYANATE COMPOUNDS EXPOSURE LIMITS European legislation There is none Note Each European country may have established other legal or normative OELVs Example: In the UK Maximum Exposure Limits for isocyanate is 0.02 mg/m 3 (8-hour time-weighted average, TWA) and 0.07 mg/m 3 (15-minute TWA). These limits are expressed as total isocyanate and apply to the isocyanate functional group, whether present as monomer, polymer or partially cured aerosol.
PAINTS AND GLUES FORMALDEHYDE Signs and symptoms of exposure to FORMALDEHYDE Acute exposure: irritation of skin and mucous membranes ( resulting runny nose, sore throat, coughing and wheeze) Chronic exposure: occupational asthma skin allergic dermatitis eye allergic reactions Also described as potential carcinogen (nasal and lung cancer) HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS Xn OROR T OROR
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS FORMALDEHYDE PAINTS AND GLUES- FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE LIMITS European legislation There is none Note Each European country may have established other legal or normative OELVs Example: In the UK Maximum Exposure Limits for formaldehyde is 2.5 mg/m 3 or 2 ppm (8-hour time- weighted average and 15-minute TWA).
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS PRESERVATIVES Waterborne preservatives- Copper, chromium and arsenic salts Oilborne preservatives – Creosote, Pentachlorophenol Principal effects on the health of workers Can be diverse, depending on the chemicals used, including dermatitis, C.N.S. effects and cancer IF PRESERVATION OPERATIONS ARE DEVELOPED PAY ATTENTION TO THE TYPE OF PRESERVATIVES – ASK FOR SAFETY DATA SHEETS
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS OTHER CHEMICALS USED Bleaching agents / Stain removers Hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide Chlorine Bleaches (sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite) Oxalic acid … BLEACHING AGENTS ARE HAZARDOUS – INFORMATION ON SAFETY MUST BE AVALIABLE (e.g. LABELING AND SAFETY DATA SHEETS)
Framework Directive – Council Directive 89/391/EEC Article 6 – General obligations on employers General principles of prevention
PREVENTION MEASURES Prior risk assessment – Identify the operations and workers exposure Review the information contained in SDS and labels
PREVENTION MEASURES Change the production process Total or partial substitution of dangerous substances Automation and/or confined and closed process Located exhaustion Appropriate general ventilation Organization of work Safety storage Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Emergency measures Prevention and protection of fire and explosion
PREVENTION MEASURES Change the production process Adapting the work to the individual The design of workplaces The choice of work equipment The choice of working and production methods To alleviating monotonous work
PREVENTION MEASURES Total or partial substitution of dangerous substances E.g.: Substitution of know dangerous substances for less dangerous substances, like the substitution of benzene by toluene or xylenes or the substitution of solvent based glues and inks by aqueous ones
PREVENTION MEASURES Automation and/or confined and closed process Encapsulate machines or parts of them to avoid exposure of workers to wood dust
PREVENTION MEASURES Located exhaustion / appropriate general ventilation If the other measures doesnt work, the employers should guarantee/implement collective protective measures over individual protective measures, namely located exhaustion in sections/machines in which wood dust is produced General ventilation should always be present to avoid/reduce accumulation of gases and vapours
PREVENTION MEASURES Organization of work – Action in Man-Machine-Environment system e.g.: the periodic rotation of workers exposed to dangerous substances in a specific job, like painting or varnishing
PREVENTION MEASURES Safety storage Organize the storage Guarantee compatibility between products Appropriate ventilation, dry place and ambient temperature Adequate labelling Maintain the SDS near the chemical products
PREVENTION MEASURES Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) PPE should only be used when justified in the risk assessment, namely when is not possible to use collective protective measures
PREVENTION MEASURES Emergency measures The employer must designate the workers responsible for the emergency procedures Prevention and protection of fire and explosion Wood dust and organic solvents are easily flammable. Accumulation of wood dust should not be allowed and all chemical products must be stored appropriately
INFORMATION, TRAINING, CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION OF WORKERS
Employers shall take appropriate measures so that workers and/or their representatives receive all information and adequate training concerning: - The safety and health risks, protective and preventive measures; - First aid, fire-fighting and evacuation of workers, serious and imminent danger. Special attention - vulnerable groups of workers (pregnant, young workers, newly admitted, etc)
INFORMATION, TRAINING, CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION OF WORKERS Concerning the risks related to chemical agents, the employer should provide (1/2): - Data obtained from the risk assessment; - Information on the hazardous chemical agents: - the identity of those agents; - the risks to safety and health; - relevant occupational exposure limit values.
Concerning the risks related to chemical agents, the employer should provide (2/2): - training and information on appropriate precautions and actions; - access to any safety data sheet provided by the supplier. ALSO, the employer must ensure that the contents of the containers and pipes, are clearly identifiable. Employer must be encouraged to post relevant H&S information concerning the working place/operations performed. INFORMATION, TRAINING, CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION OF WORKERS
The employer shall consult workers and/or their representatives and allow them to take part in discussions on all questions relating to safety and health at work. By means of: Consultation of workers, The right of workers and/ or their representatives to make proposals, Balanced participation in accordance with national laws and/ or practices. INFORMATION, TRAINING, CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION OF WORKERS
Workers or workers' representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers - 1/2 Shall take part or be consulted regarding: any measure which may substantially affect safety and health; the workers designated to implement first-aid, fire-fighting and the evacuation measures; risk assessment reports;
INFORMATION, TRAINING, CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION OF WORKERS Workers or workers' representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers - 2/2 Shall take part or be consulted regarding: protective measures, including Personal Protective Equipment (PPE); list of accidents; reports on occupational accidents. the planning and organization of the training of workers.
Type of equipment usually used for chemical protection 1. Respiratory protective equipment (RPE) 2. Protective eyewear equipment 3. Protective Clothing equipment 4. Hand protective equipment (gloves) Other usually used PPE in the wood transformation industry: Protective shoes, helmets, ear protection WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY
SELECTION PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – SELECTION Respiratory Protective Equipment TWO BASIC REQUIREMENTS 1.The RPE must be suitable for the purpose for which is used. this means different RPE for different chemical agents exposure 2. RPE must be CE marked WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY
SELECTION PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – SELECTION Respiratory Protective Equipment THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF RPE 1. Disposable respirator; 2. Re-usable respirator (half or full mask); 3. Powered respirator. WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY
SELECTION PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – SELECTION Respiratory Protective Equipment THREE MAIN TYPES OF FILTERS: 1.particle filters; 2.gas/vapour filters; 3.combined filters - particles and gases and vapours
WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY SELECTION PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – SELECTION Respiratory Protective Equipment PARTICLE FILTERS Suitable when workers are only exposed to dust. P1: low efficiency (not suitable for wood dust); P2: medium efficiency; P3: high efficiency
WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY SELECTION PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – SELECTION Respiratory Protective Equipment GAS/VAPOUR FILTERS Suitable when workers are only exposed to gases/vapours usually divided according to the type of substance they can be used against (e.g. type A is for organic gases), and the capacity of the filter (class 1 to 3).
WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY SELECTION PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – SELECTION Respiratory Protective Equipment COMBINED FILTERS - PARTICLES AND GASES AND VAPOURS Suitable for situations where protection is needed against both particles and specific gas or vapour. This type of filter will carry markings for particles and vapours, (e.g. A2P3 - organic vapour filter with capacity class 2 and high efficiency particle filter).
WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY SELECTION PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – SELECTION Protective Eyewear Equipment For specific operations must be used specific eyewear protection
WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY SELECTION PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – SELECTION Protective Clothing Equipment For specific operations must be used specific protective clothing. e.g., for painting a hooded full suit must be used
WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY SELECTION PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – SELECTION Hand Protective Equipment The protective glove must be appropriate for the chemical agent (report to info on SDS) and the conditions where it is used
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT When can PPE be used? Should only be selected and used after and when justified in the risk assessment. WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT It can be used in the following situations: where an exposure risk remains after you have put in place other reasonable controls (residual risk); Short-term or infrequent exposures where you decide that other controls at source are not reasonably practicable; while putting in place other control measures (interim measures); Emergency situations WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY
MAINTENAINCE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT - MAINTENAINCE The equipment must be: well looked after and properly stored when it is not being used; kept clean and in good repair - follow the manufacturers maintenance schedule Make sure suitable replacement PPE is always readily available. Also, make sure the PPE used are CE marked WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY
TRAINING PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT - TRAINING The worker using PPE must be aware of why it is needed, when it is to be used, repaired or replaced and its limitations. The worker must receive adequate training and instructions on how to use PPE properly. There must not be allowed exemptions for short-period tasks Safety signs wear PPE should be used WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY
ACCIDENTS Contact with moving machinery is the most common accident in this industry sector. However, accidents in result of: Exposure to, or contact with, a harmful substance Exposure to fire Exposure to an explosion Are also typical in the wood transformation industry. WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY
ACCIDENTS, INCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY The employer, must set appropriated arrangements (action plans) to deal with emergency events related to the presence of hazardous chemical agents at the workplace. Including: - Relevant safety drills performed regularly - Appropriate first aid facilities
ACCIDENTS, INCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES WOOD TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY The employer must designate the workers responsible for the emergency procedures; All workers must be trained on the action plans / emergency measures set out; Simple and effective warning / other communication systems to signal the situation; Adequate cooperation with external accident and emergency services
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